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15-year-old tobacco and alcohol abstainers in a drier generation: Characteristics and lifestyle factors in a Norwegian cross-sectional sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300210
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2019 Jun; 47(4):439-445
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2019
Author
Ingeborg Lund
Janne Scheffels
Author Affiliation
Department of Alcohol, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Tobacco and Drugs, Norway.
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2019 Jun; 47(4):439-445
Date
Jun-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Alcohol Abstinence - statistics & numerical data
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Leisure Activities
Life Style
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Parent-Child Relations
Parenting - psychology
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Tobacco Use - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Norwegian adolescents currently drink and smoke less on average than previous cohorts. Based on cross-sectional survey data, the individual and familial characteristics of 15-year-old non-users and users of alcohol and tobacco were compared to identify correlates to abstinence.
The survey was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Service. The sample consisted of 3107 adolescents from a 2011 school-based survey, of which 848 (27.3%) did not drink alcohol nor use tobacco. Associations with leisure time activities, risk perceptions, parenting style and social factors were analysed by logistic regression.
Most of the non-drinkers were also non-users of tobacco. Abstainers (neither alcohol nor tobacco use) tended to have less unorganized and more hobby-related leisure time activities, higher risk perceptions for smoking, and monitoring or emotionally supportive parents. They more rarely reported close relationships with their best friend and were more likely to report lower occurrences of drinking and smoking among friends or siblings.
Differences in perceived parenting styles and a lower degree of unorganized leisure in the abstainer group points to monitoring and closer emotional ties between parents and children as important factors in adolescent abstinence. An implication of these results is that promoting hobby-based activities might be a useful strategy for preventing alcohol and tobacco use in young people.
PubMed ID
29671371 View in PubMed
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1918 pandemic morbidity: The first wave hits the poor, the second wave hits the rich.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299653
Source
Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 05; 12(3):307-313
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Date
05-2018
Author
Svenn-Erik Mamelund
Author Affiliation
Work Research Institute, OsloMet-Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 05; 12(3):307-313
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Keywords
Female
History, 20th Century
Housing - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 - economics - statistics & numerical data
Influenza, Human - epidemiology
Male
Morbidity
Norway - epidemiology
Pandemics - economics - statistics & numerical data
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Social Class
Vaccination
Abstract
Whether morbidity from the 1918-19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue, the recent literature has hypothesized that morbidity was "socially neutral."
To study the associations between influenza-like illness (ILI) and socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and wave during the 1918-19 influenza pandemic.
Availability of incidence data on the 1918-19 pandemic is scarce, in particular for waves other than the "fall wave" October-December 1918. Here, an overlooked survey from Bergen, Norway (n = 10 633), is used to study differences in probabilities of ILI and ILI probability ratios by apartment size as a measure of SES and gender for 3 waves including the waves prior to and after the "fall wave."
Socioeconomic status was negatively associated with ILI in the first wave, but positively associated in the second wave. At all SES levels, men had the highest ILI in the summer, while women had the highest ILI in the fall. There were no SES or gender differences in ILI in the winter of 1919.
For the first time, it is documented a crossover in the role of socioeconomic status in 1918 pandemic morbidity. The poor came down with influenza first, while the rich with less exposure in the first wave had the highest morbidity in the second wave. The study suggests that the socioeconomically disadvantaged should be prioritized if vaccines are of limited availability in a future pandemic.
PubMed ID
29356350 View in PubMed
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Abnormally invasive placenta-prevalence, risk factors and antenatal suspicion: results from a large population-based pregnancy cohort study in the Nordic countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294473
Source
BJOG. 2016 Jul; 123(8):1348-55
Publication Type
Journal Article
Video-Audio Media
Date
Jul-2016
Author
L Thurn
P G Lindqvist
M Jakobsson
L B Colmorn
K Klungsoyr
R I Bjarnadóttir
A M Tapper
P E Børdahl
K Gottvall
K B Petersen
L Krebs
M Gissler
J Langhoff-Roos
K Källen
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Blekinge Hospital, Karlskrona, Sweden.
Source
BJOG. 2016 Jul; 123(8):1348-55
Date
Jul-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Video-Audio Media
Keywords
Adult
Cesarean Section - statistics & numerical data
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Hysterectomy - statistics & numerical data
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Norway - epidemiology
Peripartum Period
Placenta Accreta - diagnostic imaging - epidemiology
Postpartum Hemorrhage - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Prevalence
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Ultrasonography
Ultrasonography, Prenatal
Uterine Rupture - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The objective was to investigate prevalence, estimate risk factors, and antenatal suspicion of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) associated with laparotomy in women in the Nordic countries.
Population-based cohort study.
A 3-year Nordic collaboration among obstetricians to identify and report on uterine rupture, peripartum hysterectomy, excessive blood loss, and AIP from 2009 to 2012 The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS).
In the NOSS study, clinicians reported AIP cases from maternity wards and the data were validated against National health registries.
Prevalence, risk factors, antenatal suspicion, birth complications, and risk estimations using aggregated national data.
A total of 205 cases of AIP in association with laparotomy were identified, representing 3.4 per 10 000 deliveries. The single most important risk factor, which was reported in 49% of all cases of AIP, was placenta praevia. The risk of AIP increased seven-fold after one prior caesarean section (CS) to 56-fold after three or more CS. Prior postpartum haemorrhage was associated with six-fold increased risk of AIP (95% confidence interval 3.7-10.9). Approximately 70% of all cases were not diagnosed antepartum. Of these, 39% had prior CS and 33% had placenta praevia.
Our findings indicate that a lower CS rate in the population may be the most effective way to lower the incidence of AIP. Focused ultrasound assessment of women at high risk will likely strengthen antenatal suspicion. Prior PPH is a novel risk factor associated with an increased prevalence of AIP.
An ultrasound assessment in women with placenta praevia or prior CS may double the awareness for AIP.
Notes
CommentIn: BJOG. 2016 May;123(6):1032 PMID 27101265
CommentIn: BJOG. 2016 May;123(6):1031-2 PMID 27101264
CommentIn: BJOG. 2017 Jan;124(1):164-165 PMID 28009121
PubMed ID
26227006 View in PubMed
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Accuracy of surgical complication rate estimation using ICD-10 codes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302167
Source
Br J Surg. 2019 02; 106(3):236-244
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Observational Study
Date
02-2019
Author
A Storesund
A S Haugen
M Hjortås
M W Nortvedt
H Flaatten
G E Eide
M A Boermeester
N Sevdalis
E Søfteland
Author Affiliation
Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
Source
Br J Surg. 2019 02; 106(3):236-244
Date
02-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Observational Study
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Clinical Coding
Female
Humans
International Classification of Diseases
Length of Stay - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Operative Time
Postoperative Complications - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Sensitivity and specificity
Young Adult
Abstract
The ICD-10 codes are used globally for comparison of diagnoses and complications, and are an important tool for the development of patient safety, healthcare policies and the health economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of verified complication rates in surgical admissions identified by ICD-10 codes and to validate these estimates against complications identified using the established Global Trigger Tool (GTT) methodology.
This was a prospective observational study of a sample of surgical admissions in two Norwegian hospitals. Complications were identified and classified by two expert GTT teams who reviewed patients' medical records. Three trained reviewers verified ICD-10 codes indicating a complication present on admission or emerging in hospital.
A total of 700 admissions were drawn randomly from 12 966 procedures. Some 519 possible complications were identified in 332 of 700 admissions (47·4 per cent) from ICD-10 codes. Verification of the ICD-10 codes against information from patients' medical records confirmed 298 as in-hospital complications in 141 of 700 admissions (20·1 per cent). Using GTT methodology, 331 complications were found in 212 of 700 admissions (30·3 per cent). Agreement between the two methods reached 83·3 per cent after verification of ICD-10 codes. The odds ratio for identifying complications using the GTT increased from 5·85 (95 per cent c.i. 4·06 to 8·44) to 25·38 (15·41 to 41·79) when ICD-10 complication codes were verified against patients' medical records.
Verified ICD-10 codes strengthen the accuracy of complication rates. Use of non-verified complication codes from administrative systems significantly overestimates in-hospital surgical complication rates.
PubMed ID
30229870 View in PubMed
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Adherence to the New Nordic Diet during pregnancy and subsequent maternal weight development: a study conducted in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299175
Source
Br J Nutr. 2018 06; 119(11):1286-1294
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
Marianne Skreden
Elisabet R Hillesund
Andrew K Wills
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Elling Bere
Nina C Øverby
Author Affiliation
1Department of Public Health, Sport and Nutrition,University of Agder,PO Box 422,4604 Kristiansand,Norway.
Source
Br J Nutr. 2018 06; 119(11):1286-1294
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Child
Diet
Diet Surveys
Female
Humans
Male
Mothers
Norway - epidemiology
Overweight
Pregnancy
Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Risk factors
Weight Gain
Abstract
The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health challenge. Pregnancy and beyond is a potentially important window for future weight gain in women. We investigated associations between maternal adherence to the New Nordic diet (NND) during pregnancy and maternal BMI trajectories from delivery to 8 years post delivery. Data are from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. Pregnant women from all of Norway were recruited between 1999 and 2008, and 55 056 are included in the present analysis. A previously constructed diet score, NND, was used to assess adherence to the diet. The score favours intake of Nordic fruits, root vegetables, cabbages, potatoes, oatmeal porridge, whole grains, wild fish, game, berries, milk and water. Linear spline multi-level models were used to estimate the association. We found that women with higher adherence to the NND pattern during pregnancy had on average lower post-partum BMI trajectories and slightly less weight gain up to 8 years post delivery compared with the lower NND adherers. These associations remained after adjustment for physical activity, education, maternal age, smoking and parity (mean diff at delivery (high v. low adherers): -0·3 kg/m2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·2; mean diff at 8 years: -0·5 kg/m2; 95 % CI -0·6, -0·4), and were not explained by differences in energy intake or by exclusive breast-feeding duration. Similar patterns of associations were seen with trajectories of overweight/obesity as the outcome. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the NND may have beneficial properties to long-term weight regulation among women post-partum.
PubMed ID
29770760 View in PubMed
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Adolescent drinking-a touch of social class?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290269
Source
Addiction. 2017 May; 112(5):792-800
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-2017
Author
Hilde Pape
Thor Norström
Ingeborg Rossow
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Addiction. 2017 May; 112(5):792-800
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alcoholic Intoxication - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Parenting
Regression Analysis
Risk
Social Class
Surveys and Questionnaires
Underage Drinking - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To estimate whether parental socio-economic status (SES) is associated with adolescent drinking, and the degree to which a possible association may be accounted for by various parental factors.
Cross-sectional Norwegian school survey from 2006 (response rate: 86%).
Students aged 13-14 years (n = 5797), 15-16 years (n = 6613) and 17-18 years (n = 5351), of whom 51% were girls.
Parents' education was our main SES indicator, and we distinguished between low (7%) and middle/high (93%) educational level. The outcomes comprised past-year drinking and intoxication. We also applied measures on general parenting, parents' alcohol-related permissiveness and parental intoxication. The main analyses were conducted using Poisson regression.
Parents' education had no statistically significant impact on alcohol use among the 17-18-year-olds, while 13-16-year-olds with low educated parents had an elevated relative risk (RR) of both drinking [RR = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.29] and intoxication (RR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.21-1.44). The RRs became statistically insignificant when including all the parental factors as covariates in the regression models. Among adolescents who had consumed alcohol, low parental education was related to more frequent drinking (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.11-1.38) and intoxication episodes (RR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.22-1.66). Again, the RRs became statistically insignificant when we accounted for all the parental factors. This pattern was replicated when we applied an alternative indicator for low parental SES.
Adolescent drinking in Norway appears to be related inversely to parents' social standing. The elevated risk of low socio-economic status vanishes when general parenting, alcohol-related parental permissiveness and parents' drinking are accounted for.
PubMed ID
27943493 View in PubMed
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Adolescent mental health and earnings inequalities in adulthood: evidence from the Young-HUNT Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289537
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Feb; 71(2):201-206
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2017
Author
Miriam Evensen
Torkild Hovde Lyngstad
Ole Melkevik
Anne Reneflot
Arnstein Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Feb; 71(2):201-206
Date
Feb-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent health
Adult
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Registries
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that adolescent mental health problems are associated with lower employment probabilities and risk of unemployment. The evidence on how earnings are affected is much weaker, and few have addressed whether any association reflects unobserved characteristics and whether the consequences of mental health problems vary across the earnings distribution.
A population-based Norwegian health survey linked to administrative registry data (N=7885) was used to estimate how adolescents' mental health problems (separate indicators of internalising, conduct, and attention problems and total sum scores) affect earnings (=30 years) in young adulthood. We used linear regression with fixed-effects models comparing either students within schools or siblings within families. Unconditional quantile regressions were used to explore differentials across the earnings distribution.
Mental health problems in adolescence reduce average earnings in adulthood, and associations are robust to control for observed family background and school fixed effects. For some, but not all mental health problems, associations are also robust in sibling fixed-effects models, where all stable family factors are controlled. Further, we found much larger earnings loss below the 25th centile.
Adolescent mental health problems reduce adult earnings, especially among individuals in the lower tail of the earnings distribution. Preventing mental health problems in adolescence may increase future earnings.
PubMed ID
27531845 View in PubMed
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Adolescent mental health and earnings inequalities in adulthood: evidence from the Young-HUNT Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289695
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Feb; 71(2):201-206
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2017
Author
Miriam Evensen
Torkild Hovde Lyngstad
Ole Melkevik
Anne Reneflot
Arnstein Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Feb; 71(2):201-206
Date
Feb-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent health
Adult
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Registries
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that adolescent mental health problems are associated with lower employment probabilities and risk of unemployment. The evidence on how earnings are affected is much weaker, and few have addressed whether any association reflects unobserved characteristics and whether the consequences of mental health problems vary across the earnings distribution.
A population-based Norwegian health survey linked to administrative registry data (N=7885) was used to estimate how adolescents' mental health problems (separate indicators of internalising, conduct, and attention problems and total sum scores) affect earnings (=30 years) in young adulthood. We used linear regression with fixed-effects models comparing either students within schools or siblings within families. Unconditional quantile regressions were used to explore differentials across the earnings distribution.
Mental health problems in adolescence reduce average earnings in adulthood, and associations are robust to control for observed family background and school fixed effects. For some, but not all mental health problems, associations are also robust in sibling fixed-effects models, where all stable family factors are controlled. Further, we found much larger earnings loss below the 25th centile.
Adolescent mental health problems reduce adult earnings, especially among individuals in the lower tail of the earnings distribution. Preventing mental health problems in adolescence may increase future earnings.
PubMed ID
27531845 View in PubMed
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Adolescents consulting general practitioners for psychological problems-a nationwide, register-based study in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300342
Source
Fam Pract. 2019 01 25; 36(1):77-83
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
01-25-2019
Author
Øystein Hetlevik
Christina H Bjørnå
Ina-Terese Lundring
Sturla Gjesdal
Author Affiliation
Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
Source
Fam Pract. 2019 01 25; 36(1):77-83
Date
01-25-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Female
General practitioners
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Physician-Patient Relations
Psychology, Adolescent
Abstract
Psychological problems are increasing among adolescents, but little is known about the role of GPs in this area.
This study aims to investigate the frequency of GP consultations with a psychological diagnosis in adolescence and predictors for such help seeking.
Nationwide longitudinal register-based study investigating GP consultations among adolescents aged 13-17 years (N = 123 516) in Norway. First, all GP consultations within the study population were identified from the national GP claims register for 2006-11. Second, adolescents with a first-time consultation with a psychological diagnosis at age 15-16 years were identified, and prior GP consultations, prior somatic diagnoses, parental education and GP and GP-practice characteristics were assessed as possible predictors for seeking help.
From age 13 to 17 years, 15.3% of girls and 13.0% of boys had =1 GP consultation with a psychological diagnosis. In total, 6.8% of girls and 4.8% of boys consulted a GP for the first time with a psychological problem at age 15-16 years. For both sexes, number of prior GP consultations and a prior diagnosis of headache and abdominal pain predicted consulting with an internalizing problem (depression, anxiety and stress). A prior headache diagnosis predicted consulting for behavioural problems. Psychological diagnoses were more often found among adolescents with lower parental education. There were only minor associations with GP characteristics.
Norwegian adolescents often consult a GP and one in seven had a GP-diagnosed psychological problem at age 13-17. Policies to improve mental health care for adolescents should include strengthening of GP services.
PubMed ID
30010745 View in PubMed
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Adverse drug reaction reporting: how can drug consumption information add to analyses using spontaneous reports?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294818
Source
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Apr; 74(4):497-504
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2018
Author
Kristian Svendsen
Kjell H Halvorsen
Solveig Vorren
Hilde Samdal
Beate Garcia
Author Affiliation
Tromsø Hospital Pharmacy, University Hospital of North Norway, N-9038, Tromsø, Norway. kristian.0411@gmail.com.
Source
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Apr; 74(4):497-504
Date
Apr-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
Atorvastatin Calcium - adverse effects
Central Nervous System Stimulants - adverse effects
Databases, Factual
Drug Utilization Review
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - adverse effects
Male
Methylphenidate - adverse effects
Norway - epidemiology
Pharmaceutical Services
Pharmacovigilance
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Simvastatin - adverse effects
Abstract
Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is a cornerstone in pharmacovigilance. However, information about the underlying consumption of drugs is rarely used when analysing spontaneous reports. The purpose of this study was to combine ADR reports with drug consumption data to demonstrate the additional information this gives in various scenarios, comparing different drugs, gender-stratified sub-populations and changes in reporting over time.
We combined all Norwegian ADR reports in 2004-2013 from the EudraVigilance database (n?=?14.028) with dispensing data from the Norwegian Prescription Database (more than 800 million dispensed prescriptions during 2004-2013). This was done in order to calculate drug-specific consumption-adjusted adverse drug reaction reporting rates (CADRRs) by dividing the number of reports for each drug with the number of users of the drug during the same time period.
Among the ten drugs with the highest number of ADR reports and the ten drugs with the highest CADRR, only four drugs were in both categories. This indicates that drugs with a high number of reports often also have a high number of users and that CADRR captures drugs with potentially relevant safety issues but a smaller number of users. Comparing reported ADRs in females and males using methylphenidate, we found that the two groups report different ADRs. Finally, we showed that changes in ADR reporting for simvastatin and atorvastatin during 2004-2013 were due to changes in consumption and that atorvastatin had a higher CADRR but fewer reports than simvastatin.
CADRR provides additional information compared with number of reports alone in studies using spontaneous reports. It is important for researchers to adjust for consumption whenever possible in pharmacovigilance studies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29255992 View in PubMed
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539 records – page 1 of 54.