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2nd-generation HIV surveillance and injecting drug use: uncovering the epidemiological ice-berg.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84543
Source
Int J Public Health. 2007;52(3):166-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Reintjes Ralf
Wiessing Lucas
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Faculty Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany. Ralf.Reintjes@rzbd.haw-hamburg.de
Source
Int J Public Health. 2007;52(3):166-72
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Europe - epidemiology
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Hepatitis C - epidemiology
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology
Turkey - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: HIV/AIDS surveillance methods are under revision as the diversity of HIV epidemics is becoming more apparent. The so called "2nd generation surveillance (SGS) systems" aim to enhance surveillance by broadening the range of indicators to prevalence, behaviors and correlates, for a better understanding and a more complete and timely awareness of evolving epidemics. METHODS: Concepts of HIV SGS are reviewed with a special focus on injecting drug users, a major at-risk and hard to reach group in Europe, a region with mainly low or concentrated epidemics. RESULTS: The scope of HIV/AIDS surveillance needs to be broadened following principles of SGS. Specifically for IDUs we propose including hepatitis C data as indicator for injecting risk in routine systems like those monitoring sexually transmitted infections and information on knowledge and attitudes as potential major determinants of risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The suggested approach should lead to more complete and timely information for public health interventions, however there is a clear need for comparative validation studies to assess the validity, reliability and cost-effectiveness of traditional and enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance systems.
PubMed ID
17958283 View in PubMed
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A 3-year follow-up after anterior colporrhaphy compared with collagen-coated transvaginal mesh for anterior vaginal wall prolapse: a randomised controlled trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272920
Source
BJOG. 2016 Jan;123(1):136-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
M. Rudnicki
E. Laurikainen
R. Pogosean
I. Kinne
U. Jakobsson
P. Teleman
Source
BJOG. 2016 Jan;123(1):136-42
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Collagen
Denmark - epidemiology
Dyspareunia - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Gynecologic Surgical Procedures - instrumentation - methods
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Pelvic Organ Prolapse - epidemiology - surgery
Prospective Studies
Quality of Life
Surgical Mesh
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Treatment Outcome
Vagina - surgery
Abstract
To compare the 1-year (previously published) and 3-year objective and subjective cure rates, and complications, related to the use of a collagen-coated transvaginal mesh for anterior vaginal wall prolapse against a conventional anterior repair.
Randomised controlled study.
Six departments of obstetrics and gynaecology in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark.
A total of 138 women, of 55 years of age or older, admitted for stage =2 anterior vaginal wall prolapse.
The women scheduled for primary anterior vaginal wall prolapse surgery were randomised between conventional anterior colporrhaphy and surgery with a collagen-coated prolene mesh. All patients were evaluated using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) assessment before and after surgery. Symptoms related to pelvic organ prolapse were evaluated using the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7) and the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20).
Objective cure, defined as POP-Q stage
PubMed ID
26420345 View in PubMed
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A 5.5 year prospective study of self-reported musculoskeletal pain and of fibromyalgia in a female population: significance and natural history.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201887
Source
Clin Rheumatol. 1999;18(2):114-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
1999
Author
K O Forseth
O. Førre
J T Gran
Author Affiliation
Rikshospitalet, Centre for Rheumatic Diseases, The National Hospital, University of Oslo, Norway.
Source
Clin Rheumatol. 1999;18(2):114-21
Date
1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Chronic Disease
Female
Fibromyalgia - complications - epidemiology - physiopathology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Diseases - complications - epidemiology - physiopathology
Norway - epidemiology
Pain - complications - epidemiology - physiopathology
Pain Measurement
Prospective Studies
Self Disclosure
Abstract
In order to investigate the significance and outcome of self-reported pain and fibromyalgia (FM) in a female population, 214 women with initially self-reported pain were interviewed and examined in 1990 and 1995. In 1990 the sample was categorised into four pain status groups: 46 individuals (21%) with nonchronic (recurrent) pain, 69 (32%) with chronic regional pain 42 (20%) with chronic multifocal pain and 57 with chronic widespread pain (CWP). The last group comprised 39 (18%) women with FM, fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria. The frequency of tender points, associated symptoms called historical variables and individuals with low education increased statistically significantly with increasing pain status. In 1995, 48 women had non-chronic pain (23%), 46 (21%) chronic regional pain, 39 (18%) chronic multifocal pain and 81 (38%) CWP; of these, 71 (33%) had FM. Eleven of the 39 women initially with FM no longer fulfilled the criteria. The risk of developing CWP among the 157 individuals with initially a lower pain status was statistically higher in women with chronic multifocal pain than in women with less pain extension. Self-reported pain constitutes a continuum of pain severity and thus of clinical and social significance. The overall outcome was poor with an increase of individuals with CWP and FM. The prognosis of chronic multifocal pain, CWP and FM was especially poor. About half of the women with non-chronic pain or chronic regional pain did not deteriorate. However, because the process of developing FM started with localised pain in most cases, self-reported pain of any severity confers a risk for developing FM. Identifying possible risk factors for FM are at present under study and will be presented separately in another report.
PubMed ID
10357115 View in PubMed
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A 5-year follow-up study of users of benzodiazepine: starting with diazepam versus oxazepam.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282849
Source
Br J Gen Pract. 2016 Apr;66(645):e241-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Ingunn Fride Tvete
Trine Bjørner
Tor Skomedal
Source
Br J Gen Pract. 2016 Apr;66(645):e241-7
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anti-Anxiety Agents - therapeutic use
Anxiety - drug therapy - epidemiology
Depression - drug therapy - epidemiology
Diazepam - therapeutic use
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Oxazepam - therapeutic use
Prescription Drug Misuse - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
Drug dependency may develop during long-term benzodiazepine use, indicated, for example, by dose escalation. The first benzodiazepine chosen may affect the risk of dose escalation.
To detect possible differences in benzodiazepine use between new users of diazepam and oxazepam over time.
This 5-year prescription database study included 19 747 new benzodiazepine users, inhabitants of Norway, aged 30-60 years, with first redemption for diazepam or oxazepam.
Individuals starting on diazepam versus oxazepam were analysed by logistic regression with sex, age, other drug redemptions, prescriber's specialty, household income, education level, type of work, and vocational rehabilitation support as background variables. Time to reach a daily average intake of =1 defined daily doses (DDD) over a 3-month period was analysed using a Cox proportional hazard regression model.
New users of oxazepam had a higher risk for dose escalation compared with new users of diazepam. This was true even when accounting for differences in sociodemographic status and previous drug use (hazard ratio [HR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.17 to 1.51).
Most doctors prescribed, according to recommendations, oxazepam to individuals they may have regarded as prone to and at risk of dependency. However, these individuals were at higher risk for dose escalation even when accounting for differences in sociodemographic status and previous drug use. Differences between the two user groups could be explained by different preferences for starting drug, DDD for oxazepam being possibly too low, and some unaccounted differences in illness.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26965028 View in PubMed
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[10,850 general practice consultations with elderly patients. From diagnosis-prescription-examination in Møre and Romsdal]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature72639
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1997 Nov 10;117(27):3980-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-10-1997
Author
J. Straand
H. Sandvik
K. Rokstad
Author Affiliation
Seksjon for allmennmedisin, Universitetet i Bergen.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1997 Nov 10;117(27):3980-4
Date
Nov-10-1997
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cardiovascular Diseases - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
English Abstract
Family Practice - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Services for the Aged - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Musculoskeletal Diseases - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Prescriptions, Drug - statistics & numerical data
Referral and Consultation - statistics & numerical data
Respiratory Tract Diseases - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Abstract
Over a period of two months in 1988 and 1989 general practitioners in the Norwegian county of Møre and Romsdal recorded all contacts with their patients. Participation was close to 100%. We report data from 10,850 surgery consultations with elderly patients (65 years and older). 60% of the consultations involved female patients, and 58% of the patients were 65-74 years old. New diagnoses were made in one-third of the cases; two-thirds were follow-ups. The most common groups of diagnoses were cardiovascular (28%), musculoskeletal (13%), psychiatric (8%) and respiratory diseases (8%). Almost 10% of all consultations were for hypertension. Drugs were prescribed in 45% of all cases. 27% of all prescriptions were for cardiovascular drugs, and 25% were for drugs for the nervous system. The 20 most common diagnoses made up more than half of the total number of diagnoses. Almost 70% of all prescriptions were for the ten most common therapeutic groups.
PubMed ID
9441427 View in PubMed
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A 10-year trend of insomnia prevalence in the adult Norwegian population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257604
Source
Sleep Med. 2014 Feb;15(2):173-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Ståle Pallesen
Børge Sivertsen
Inger Hilde Nordhus
Bjørn Bjorvatn
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7807, N-5020 Bergen, Norway; Norwegian Competence Center for Sleep Disorders, Jonas Lies vei 65, 5021 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: staale.pallesen@psysp.uib.no.
Source
Sleep Med. 2014 Feb;15(2):173-9
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Female
Humans
Hypnotics and Sedatives - therapeutic use
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Sex Factors
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders - drug therapy - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
We aimed to investigate the 10-year trend in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms, insomnia cases, and use of hypnotic agents in the adult Norwegian population.
Data from two representative surveys assessing identical insomnia symptoms in the adult population of Norway, one conducted in 1999-2000 (N=2001) and one conducted in 2009-2010 (N=2000), were compared.
Controlling for basic demographic variables, significant increases were found over the 10-year study period in the prevalence of sleep-onset insomnia from 13.1% to 15.2%, dissatisfaction with sleep from 8.2% to 13.6%, daytime impairment from 14.8% to 18.8%, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) insomnia cases from 11.9% to 15.5%, and hypnotic agent use from 6.9% to 11.1%. No secular trend was found for maintenance insomnia or for early morning awakening insomnia. Across the two surveys, women reported a higher prevalence of insomnia than men. Age was positively associated with the prevalence of nocturnal sleep problems and use of hypnotic agents but was inversely associated with daytime impairment. Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) reported a higher prevalence of several insomnia symptoms.
Insomnia seems to be on the rise in the general adult population, which gives reason for concern. Prevention of insomnia and cost-effective interventions should receive higher priority in the future.
PubMed ID
24382513 View in PubMed
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15-year-old tobacco and alcohol abstainers in a drier generation: Characteristics and lifestyle factors in a Norwegian cross-sectional sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300210
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2019 Jun; 47(4):439-445
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2019
Author
Ingeborg Lund
Janne Scheffels
Author Affiliation
Department of Alcohol, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Tobacco and Drugs, Norway.
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2019 Jun; 47(4):439-445
Date
Jun-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Alcohol Abstinence - statistics & numerical data
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Leisure Activities
Life Style
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Parent-Child Relations
Parenting - psychology
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Tobacco Use - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Norwegian adolescents currently drink and smoke less on average than previous cohorts. Based on cross-sectional survey data, the individual and familial characteristics of 15-year-old non-users and users of alcohol and tobacco were compared to identify correlates to abstinence.
The survey was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Service. The sample consisted of 3107 adolescents from a 2011 school-based survey, of which 848 (27.3%) did not drink alcohol nor use tobacco. Associations with leisure time activities, risk perceptions, parenting style and social factors were analysed by logistic regression.
Most of the non-drinkers were also non-users of tobacco. Abstainers (neither alcohol nor tobacco use) tended to have less unorganized and more hobby-related leisure time activities, higher risk perceptions for smoking, and monitoring or emotionally supportive parents. They more rarely reported close relationships with their best friend and were more likely to report lower occurrences of drinking and smoking among friends or siblings.
Differences in perceived parenting styles and a lower degree of unorganized leisure in the abstainer group points to monitoring and closer emotional ties between parents and children as important factors in adolescent abstinence. An implication of these results is that promoting hobby-based activities might be a useful strategy for preventing alcohol and tobacco use in young people.
PubMed ID
29671371 View in PubMed
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8113 records – page 1 of 812.