This is a study of the relationship between occupational exposure to magnetic fields in pot rooms and occurrence of sick leave caused by musculoskeletal disorders. The average exposure to static magnetic fields was 8 mT in the pot rooms. Ripple fields were recorded as well. A cohort of 342 exposed workers and 222 unexposed workers from the same electrolysis plant was retrospectively followed for 5 years. The reference group had a type of work similar to the exposed group except for the exposure to magnetic fields. The occurrence of sick leave and the diagnoses causing the sick leave were obtained from the Occupational Health Care Unit: these data were stored in their computer files. The data were complete. No relationship between the occurrence of sick leave caused by musculoskeletal disorders and exposure to magnetic fields was found. This was the case for both the annual number of periods of sick leave and the total number of days with sick leave. The results must be interpreted with caution due to limitations in the design and available data. Also, static magnetic fields constituted the major exposure, and the results may be different when related to work in other types of magnetic-field exposure.
During the last 10-20 yr there has been a marked increase in demand for dental services in most western countries. An important issue is how this increase in demand has influenced inequalities in use of services among different income groups in the population. It is of particular interest to study this in Norway, as almost all the costs for dental care among adults are borne by the patient. The aim of the present study was to examine how the effect of family income on demand for dental services has changed over time. The analyses were performed on three sets of national data from 1977, 1983, and 1989. The samples were representative of the non-institutionalized Norwegian population aged 20 yr and above. Inequalities in use of dental services among different income groups have decreased between 1977 and 1989. However, separate analyses on the data from 1989 showed that some inequalities still exist. A non-selective subsidizing policy for dental care is unlikely to have any great effect in reducing these inequalities. Subsidized dental care is likely to raise the total amount of dental care demanded. However, it is difficult to assess accurately the size of this increase as the elasticity of demand for dental care in Norway with respect to price is unknown.
To estimate the incidence of acute mastoiditis and identify predictors for mastoid surgery, a retrospective case record study of 38 children hospitalised for acute mastoiditis in Oslo from 1989 to 1998 was performed. Median age at diagnosis was 18 months and 13 (34%) of the children received mastoidectomy. Compared to the period 1970-1979, the incidence of mastoidectomy was significantly reduced. Only seven children (18%) had experienced acute otitis media prior to the current episode. Symptom duration of 6 days or more prior to hospitalisation and elevated white blood cell counts and C-reactive Protein were predictive for mastoidectomy ((OR = 5.0 (1.0-22.8), (OR = 24.5 (2.5-240) and OR = 10.5 (1-108.8)). Furthermore, total time from symptom onset to hospital discharge was significantly higher in children who received mastoidectomy. We suggest early referral to an otolaryngologic department in children suspected of acute mastoiditis.
We investigated whether prior use of calcium antagonists in 80 (16.8%) out of 477 patients (64% males) admitted with acute myocardial infarction (MI) had any impact on in-hospital mortality. Patients using calcium antagonists were slightly older (74 years vs. 72 years, 2P = 0.039) than those not taking them and fewer were male patients. Previous MI, diabetes mellitus, and prior use of aspirin, beta-blockers, and long-acting nitrates were more frequent in patients on calcium antagonists. In contrast, fewer patients on calcium antagonists prior to symptoms received thrombolytic treatment (21.3% vs. 34.8%, 2P = 0.018). The study had an observational exposed/nonexposed design, and we looked for both crude and adjusted effects. Of the 83 patients (17.4%) who died during hospitalization, 18 patients were in the calcium antagonist group (22.5%). The odds ratio (OR) for these patients to die in the hospital was 1.48 and the 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-2.78; 2P = 0.19. When adjusting for confounders (gender, age, smoking habit, previous MI, and diabetes mellitus, as well as prior use of aspirin, beta-blockers, long-acting nitrates, and thrombolytic treatment at entry) OR was 1.08 and 95% CI 0.57-2.05; 2P = 0.85. Thus, we found no excess in-hospital mortality in patients with acute MI using calcium antagonists prior to the onset of symptoms.
The prognostic value of acute postoperative seizures (APS) after epilepsy surgery is much debated. This study evaluated APS, defined as seizures in the first week post-surgery, as a predictor of long-term seizure outcome, and investigated the utility of other potential outcome predictors.
Medical records of 48 patients with temporal and extra-temporal epilepsy surgery were studied. Forty patients had lesional surgery. All had at least 2 year postoperative follow-up.
At 2 year follow-up, 25 patients (53%) were seizure free. Univariate analysis showed that APS (P = 0.048), using = six AEDs prior to surgery (P = 0.03), pathological postoperative EEG (P = 0.043) and female gender (P = 0.012) were associated with seizure recurrence.
Univariate analysis indicate that APS, a high number of AEDs used prior to surgery, and pathological postoperative EEG are possible predictors of seizure recurrence after epilepsy surgery. Only gender retained significance in the multivariate analysis.
Primary Sj?gren's syndrome (SS) shares many features with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we investigated the association of the three major polymorphisms in IRF5 and STAT4 found to be associated with SLE, in patients from Sweden and Norway with primary SS. These polymorphisms are a 5-bp CGGGG indel in the promoter of IRF5, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10488631 downstream of IRF5 and the STAT4 SNP rs7582694, which tags the major risk haplotype of STAT4. We observed strong signals for association between all three polymorphisms and primary SS, with odds ratios (ORs) >1.4 and P-values
Physical activity may counteract the adverse effects of adiposity on cardiovascular mortality; however, the evidence of a similar effect on diabetes is sparse. This study examines whether physical activity may compensate for the adverse effect of adiposity on diabetes risk.
The study population consisted of 38 231 individuals aged 20 years or more who participated in two consecutive waves of the prospective longitudinal Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway: in 1984-1986 and in 1995-1997. A Poisson regression model with SEs derived from robust variance was used to estimate adjusted risk ratios of diabetes between categories of body mass index and physical activity.
Risk of diabetes increased both with increasing body mass (Ptrend
Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway ; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Health Trust, Levanger, Norway.
High school dropout is of major concern in the western world. Our aims were to estimate the risk of school dropout in adolescents following chronic somatic disease, somatic symptoms, psychological distress, concentration difficulties, insomnia or overweight and to assess to which extent the family contributes to the association between health and school dropout.
A population of 8950 school-attending adolescents (13-21 years) rated their health in the Young-HUNT 1 Study (90% response rate) in 1995-1997. High school dropout or completion, was defined with the Norwegian National Education Database in the calendar year the participant turned 24 years old. Parental socioeconomic status was defined by using linkages to the National Education Database, the National Insurance Administration and the HUNT2 Survey. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and risk differences of high school dropout, both in the whole population and among siblings within families differentially exposed to health problems.
All explored health dimensions were strongly associated with high school dropout. In models adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, the risk differences of school dropout according to health exposures varied between 3.6% (95% CI 1.7 to 5.5) for having = 1 somatic disease versus none and 11.7% (6.3 to 17.0) for being obese versus normal weight. The results from the analyses comparing differentially exposed siblings, confirmed these results with the exception of weaker associations for somatic diseases and psychological distress. School dropout was strongly clustered within families (family level conditional intraclass correlation 0.42).
Adolescent health problems are markers for high school dropout, independent of parental socioeconomic status. Although school dropout it strongly related to family-level factors, also siblings with poor health have reduced opportunity to complete high school compared to healthy siblings. Public health policy should focus on ensuring young people with poor health the best attainable education.
Cites: BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-310797032
Cites: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001 Nov;58(11):1005-1411695946
Cites: Nord J Psychiatry. 2003;57(2):113-812745773
BACKGROUND: Adolescent smokers are often unsuccessful in quitting and difficult to retain in cessation programs. In health promotion, focusing on the right target groups is essential. Aim. The aim was to examine if adolescent occasional smokers differ from daily smokers, and if possible differences could be useful for targeted smoking cessation programs. METHODS: Ninety-one percent of all teenagers attending junior high or high schools participated in a cross-sectional study, conducted in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, 1995-1997, including 8,460 students 13-18 years old. Information on smoking habits, education, after school activities, and parents was obtained by self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: Fifty-four percent of boys and 57% of girls had tried at least one cigarette. Of these, 36% of boys and 41% of girls were current smokers, half of whom reported occasional smoking. Students who had quit smoking had more often been occasional than daily smokers. Compared to daily smokers, occasional smokers participated in higher academic courses, were more engaged in organized activities and sports, had been drunk less often, and had better family role models. CONCLUSION: Differences support potential utility of focusing on occasional smokers as a special target group in smoking cessation programs.
The effects of pre- or postnatal passive smoking on the adult incidence of asthma have not been reported previously. Between 1985 and 1996/1997, we conducted an 11-year community cohort study on the incidence of asthma and respiratory symptoms in Western Norway. The cohort included 3,786 subjects aged 15 to 70 years, of which 2,819 were responders at both baseline and follow-up. The incidence of asthma and five respiratory symptoms by self-reported exposure to maternal smoking in utero and in childhood, as well as smoking by other household members in childhood, was examined. After adjustment for sex, age, education, hay fever, personal smoking, and occupational exposure, maternal smoking was associated with asthma, phlegm cough, chronic cough, dyspnea grade 2, attacks of dyspnea, and wheezing, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals [CI]) of 3.0 (1.6, 5.6), 1.7 (1.1, 2.6), 1.9 (1.2, 3.0), 1.9 (1.2, 3.0), 2.0 (1.3, 3.0), and 1.4 (0.9, 2.2), respectively. The adjusted attributable fractions (95% CI) of the adult incidence of asthma were 17.3% (5.2, 27.9) caused by maternal smoking and 9.3% (95% CI, -23.2, 33.2) caused by smoking by other household members. Exposure to pre- and postnatal smoking carries a substantial risk for developing adult asthma and respiratory symptoms.