This study assessed the intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning of a three-couple expedition group that included a 2 1/2-year-old child which was ice-locked on a boat in the High Arctic during a major portion of the expedition. Personality assessment indicated that team members were generally well adjusted, scoring relatively higher on well-being and achievement and relatively lower on stress reactivity. Weekly mood ratings showed that the group exhibited significantly higher positive than negative affect. Reported negative events were relatively most frequent at the beginning of the Arctic stay and toward the end of the darkness period and were lowest during the initial darkness interval. The period of darkness had both a salutary and negative impact. A highly important means of coping with stress was seeking emotional support from one's partner. Selection of couples with strong bonds with their partner appears to be one viable approach for crew selection for long-duration missions.
Haplotype analysis of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene was performed in Norwegian subjects heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA, using an exon 18 specific probe and the restriction enzyme NcoI, showed that two out of 57 unrelated FH subjects had an abnormal 3.6 kb band. Further analyses revealed that this abnormal band was due to a 9.6 kb deletion that included exons 16 and 17. The 5' deletion breakpoint was after 245 bp of intron 15, and the 3' deletion breakpoint was in exon 18 after nucleotide 3390 of cDNA. Thus, both the membrane-spanning and cytoplasmatic domains of the receptor had been deleted. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed to identify this deletion among other Norwegian FH subjects. As a result of this screening one additional subject was found out of 124 subjects screened. Thus, three out of 181 (1.7%) unrelated Norwegian FH subject possessed this deletion. The deletion was found on the same haplotype in the three unrelated subjects, suggesting a common mutagenic event. The deletion is identical to a deletion (FH-Helsinki) that is very common among Finnish FH subjects. However, it is not yet known whether the mutations evolved separately in the two countries.
Anaesthesiologists from Oslo University Hospital have transported patients with severe oxygenation failure with inhaled nitric oxide (usually 20?ppm) from other hospitals to a tertiary care centre since 2002 in an effort to reduce the number of patients that otherwise would require transport with ongoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patient safety during transport with inhaled nitric oxide.
All patient transports with ongoing nitric oxide treatment undertaken from 2003 to 2012 were identified in the transport database. The frequency of adverse events and their impact on patient safety were studied in addition to response to inhaled nitric oxide and adjusted intensive care treatment and time aspects of the transports. Information about in-hospital treatment and survival were extracted from the hospital patient records.
Adverse events were recorded in 12 of the 104 transports. Seven of the adverse events were due to malfunctioning technical equipment, three were related to medication other than the inhaled nitric oxide and two were related to ventilation. No adverse events resulted in permanent negative patient consequences or in discontinuation of the transport. Out of 104 patients, 79 responded to treatment with inhaled nitric oxide and other treatment changes by an increase in oxygen saturation of more than 5%. The 30-day mortality was 27% in the group transported with inhaled nitric oxide.
Transporting patients on inhaled nitric oxide is an alternative in selected patients who would otherwise require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during transport.
Diagnostic approaches to onychomycosis have traditionally been based on a combination of culture and microscopy. In the present study clinical specimens from 346 patients with suspected onychomycosis were analysed by 18S polymerase chain reaction (detection) followed by sequencing and subsequent database search (identification) in parallel with routine culture on agar (detection and identification). In 49 samples Trichophyton rubrum was identified by culture and sequencing. In 67 additional culture negative samples, a positive dermatophyte sequence was obtained (T. rubrum in 54, T. mentagrophytes in 5, and T. species in 8 samples). Fifteen samples cultured positive while no sequence was obtained. Two hundred and seven samples were negative by culture as well as by sequencing. Nails from 10 healthy controls were negative by culture and sequencing. In conclusion, the number of specimens that were positive by polymerase chain reaction was more than double the number that were positive by culture alone.
BACKGROUND: The intention of this study was to increase the knowledge concerning the rehabilitation of women with drug problems after the birth of a child and to find out how the children developed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A follow-up study of 31 women, former drug and alcohol abusers and their children, 19 girls and 12 boys born in 1982-1983. The first survey took place when the children were 2-3 years of age, then when they were 7-9 and at last when they were 15-17. The biological mothers, foster or adoptive mothers, the children and their teachers were interviewed. RESULTS: The women got more support and control during the pregnancy than afterwards. Most of the mothers became single. Women with the shortest drug history, a good social network and a stable partner without drug problems kept the care of their children. By the first survey (1985), seven children had been placed in foster homes, in the second (1992) two further children had been taken away from their mothers, and in the third (1999) only one third of the children were living with their biological mothers. Most of the children did well at school and in their families, had friends and leisure activities despite still living by their mothers or in foster/adoption homes. None of the youngsters had been in conflict with the law or were drug abusers, but every second teenage girl needed psychological support. Children who had been stable by their drug-free biological mothers functioned best. INTERPRETATION: Mothers with drug problems do not get sufficient attention after the delivery and when the children grow up. A supporting family should be brought in contact with mother and child after the delivery. Under special circumstances pregnancy can be a positive turning point for women with drug problems.
Over a 10-year period, from 1984-1995, in the Norwegian county of Vest-Agder, five patients in a paediatric clinic were diagnosed as having chromosome constitution 47,XYY. There are 1,250 males born a year in Vest-Agder. The patients were identified with bias, and not in a routine or prospective screening programme. All patients except one, a child who was diagnosed by chance at the age of one week; were admitted because of moderate conduct disorders or problems at school and striking tallness of stature. The half-brother of one of the 47,XYY boys had Klinefelter's syndrome 47,XYY. We conclude that identification of 47,XYY syndrome and information about it were of significance and help in counselling the patients and their families.
Very few studies have addressed long-term development and risks associated with untreated malocclusion. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in occlusion in a lifelong perspective and to compare oral health and attitudes toward teeth among persons with malocclusion with those having normal occlusion.
In 1950 an epidemiologic survey of 2349 8-year-olds was conducted and included 4 intraoral photographs. Three selected samples with different malocclusions (deep bite, crossbite, or irregular teeth) and 1 sample with normal occlusion (a total of 183 subjects) were, 57 years later, invited for examination and an extensive interview about dental experiences and attitudes. Sixty-nine responded (38%) and constitute the subjects studied.
Malocclusion remained the same or worsened except in subjects having deep bite in childhood, which in some improved and in others became worse. Crowding generally increased. Sixteen persons reported moderate or severe temporomandular joint (TMJ) problems, and of these 7 belonged to the group with crossbite in childhood. With few exceptions, the subjects in all samples had good oral hygiene, visited the dentist regularly, and had well-preserved dentitions. Mean number of missing teeth was significantly lower among those with normal occlusion compared with the malocclusion groups. Individuals with normal occlusion responded favorably to all questions related to attitudes and experiences about their teeth, while responses in the malocclusion groups varied.
Persons with the particular malocclusions examined experienced more problems related to teeth later in life compared with those having normal occlusion in childhood.