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ADHD, comorbid disorders and psychosocial functioning: How representative is a child cohort study? Findings from a national patient registry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284629
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Jan 17;17(1):23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-17-2017
Author
Beate Oerbeck
Kristin Romvig Overgaard
Stian Thoresen Aspenes
Are Hugo Pripp
Marianne Mordre
Heidi Aase
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Pal Zeiner
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Jan 17;17(1):23
Date
Jan-17-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Female
Humans
International Classification of Diseases
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Mothers - psychology
Neurodevelopmental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Norway - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Registries
Abstract
Cohort studies often report findings on children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but may be biased by self-selection. The representativeness of cohort studies needs to be investigated to determine whether their findings can be generalised to the general child population. The aim of the present study was to examine the representativeness of child ADHD in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
The study population was children born between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2008 registered with hyperkinetic disorders (hereafter ADHD) in the Norwegian Patient Registry during the years 2008-2013, and two groups of children with ADHD were identified in: 1. MoBa and 2. The general child population. We used the multiaxial International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and compared the proportions of comorbid disorders (axes I-III), abnormal psychosocial situations (axis V) and child global functioning (axis VI) between these two groups. We also compared the relative differences in the multiaxial classifications for boys and girls and for children with/without axis I comorbidity, respectively in these two groups of children with ADHD.
A total of 11 119 children were registered with ADHD, with significantly fewer in MoBa (1.45%) than the general child population (2.11%), p
Notes
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PubMed ID
28095819 View in PubMed
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Analysis of self-selection bias in a population-based cohort study of autism spectrum disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108216
Source
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2013 Nov;27(6):553-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Roy M Nilsen
Pål Surén
Nina Gunnes
Elin R Alsaker
Michaeline Bresnahan
Deborah Hirtz
Mady Hornig
Kari Kveim Lie
W Ian Lipkin
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Christine Roth
Synnve Schjølberg
George Davey Smith
Ezra Susser
Stein Emil Vollset
Anne-Siri Øyen
Per Magnus
Camilla Stoltenberg
Source
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2013 Nov;27(6):553-63
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology - etiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Registries
Risk factors
Selection Bias
Young Adult
Abstract
This study examined potential self-selection bias in a large pregnancy cohort by comparing exposure-outcome associations from the cohort to similar associations obtained from nationwide registry data. The outcome under study was specialist-confirmed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).
The cohort sample (n = 89 836) was derived from the population-based prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and its substudy of ASDs, the Autism Birth Cohort (ABC) study. The nationwide registry data were derived from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (n = 507 856). The children were born in 1999–2007, and seven prenatal and perinatal exposures were selected for analyses.
ASDs were reported for 234 (0.26%) children in the cohort and 2072 (0.41%) in the nationwide population. Compared with the nationwide population, the cohort had an under-representation of the youngest women (
Notes
Comment In: Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2014 Mar;28(2):17824494985
Comment In: Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2014 Mar;28(2):17724494984
PubMed ID
23919580 View in PubMed
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Association between co-twin sex and eating disorders in opposite sex twin pairs: evaluations in North American, Norwegian, and Swedish samples.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128481
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2012 Jan;72(1):73-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Janet A Lydecker
Emily M Pisetsky
Karen S Mitchell
Laura M Thornton
Kenneth S Kendler
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Paul Lichtenstein
Cynthia M Bulik
Suzanne E Mazzeo
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2012 Jan;72(1):73-7
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - genetics
Eating Disorders - diagnosis - genetics
Female
Humans
Male
North America
Norway
Sex Factors
Sweden
Twins
Abstract
These three studies examined the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to sex hormones influences twins' risk for eating disorders based on co-twin sex, such that individuals with a female co-twin would be more likely than individuals with a male co-twin to meet diagnostic criteria for an eating disorder.
Male and female twins from the United States (N=2607), Norway (N=2796) and Sweden (N=16,458) with known co-twin sex and zygosity were assessed for eating disorders.
In the U.S. and Swedish samples, sex was significantly associated with eating disorder diagnoses, and although co-twin sex was not associated with eating disorders overall, it was associated with broadly defined bulimia nervosa in the Swedish sample. The effects for bulimia were not sustained when monozygotic twins were excluded, suggesting that the effects of prenatal sex hormones play a minor role in influencing eating disorders. Sex and co-twin sex were not associated with eating disorders in the Norwegian sample.
The prenatal sex hormone hypothesis, which proposes that prenatal hormone exposure is associated with later eating disorder symptomatology, was not supported in these three population-based twin samples.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22200526 View in PubMed
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Association between maternal use of folic acid supplements and risk of autism spectrum disorders in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116379
Source
JAMA. 2013 Feb 13;309(6):570-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-13-2013
Author
Pål Surén
Christine Roth
Michaeline Bresnahan
Margaretha Haugen
Mady Hornig
Deborah Hirtz
Kari Kveim Lie
W Ian Lipkin
Per Magnus
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Synnve Schjølberg
George Davey Smith
Anne-Siri Øyen
Ezra Susser
Camilla Stoltenberg
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo, Norway. pal.suren@fhi.no
Source
JAMA. 2013 Feb 13;309(6):570-7
Date
Feb-13-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology - prevention & control
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Dietary Supplements
Female
Folic Acid - therapeutic use
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, First
Prenatal Care
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Regression Analysis
Risk
Vitamin B Complex - therapeutic use
Young Adult
Abstract
Prenatal folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in children, but it has not been determined whether they protect against other neurodevelopmental disorders.
To examine the association between maternal use of prenatal folic acid supplements and subsequent risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified [PDD-NOS]) in children.
The study sample of 85,176 children was derived from the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The children were born in 2002-2008; by the end of follow-up on March 31, 2012, the age range was 3.3 through 10.2 years (mean, 6.4 years). The exposure of primary interest was use of folic acid from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after the start of pregnancy, defined as the first day of the last menstrual period before conception. Relative risks of ASDs were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs in a logistic regression analysis. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education level, year of birth, and parity.
Specialist-confirmed diagnosis of ASDs.
At the end of follow-up, 270 children in the study sample had been diagnosed with ASDs: 114 with autistic disorder, 56 with Asperger syndrome, and 100 with PDD-NOS. In children whose mothers took folic acid, 0.10% (64/61,042) had autistic disorder, compared with 0.21% (50/24,134) in those unexposed to folic acid. The adjusted OR for autistic disorder in children of folic acid users was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.41-0.90). No association was found with Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS, but power was limited. Similar analyses for prenatal fish oil supplements showed no such association with autistic disorder, even though fish oil use was associated with the same maternal characteristics as folic acid use.
Use of prenatal folic acid supplements around the time of conception was associated with a lower risk of autistic disorder in the MoBa cohort. Although these findings cannot establish causality, they do support prenatal folic acid supplementation.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23403681 View in PubMed
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Association of maternal report of infant and toddler gastrointestinal symptoms with autism: evidence from a prospective birth cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265147
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2015 May;72(5):466-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
Michaeline Bresnahan
Mady Hornig
Andrew F Schultz
Nina Gunnes
Deborah Hirtz
Kari Kveim Lie
Per Magnus
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Christine Roth
Synnve Schjølberg
Camilla Stoltenberg
Pål Surén
Ezra Susser
W Ian Lipkin
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2015 May;72(5):466-74
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child Development
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - complications - epidemiology - psychology
Child, Preschool
Constipation - epidemiology - psychology
Developmental Disabilities - complications - epidemiology - psychology
Diarrhea - epidemiology - psychology
Evidence-Based Medicine
Female
Food Hypersensitivity - epidemiology - psychology
Humans
Infant
Male
Mothers
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Abstract
Gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities are frequently described in association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the prevalence of GI disturbances and the age at which such problems first appear are unclear, and their specificity for ASD compared with other neurodevelopmental disorders is uncertain.
To compare maternal report of GI symptoms during the first 3 years of life in children with ASD, developmental delay (DD), and typical development (TD).
This large prospective cohort study consists of participants in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. During a 10-year period (January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2008), women throughout Norway were recruited at the first prenatal ultrasonographic visit (approximately 18 weeks' gestation). The study enrolled 95,278 mothers, 75,248 fathers, and 114,516 children. Our analyses are based on MoBa data released through October 1, 2013, and NPR diagnoses registered through December 31, 2012, and include children born from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2008, with completed age 18- and 36-month questionnaires.
We defined 3 groups of children: children with ASD (n = 195), children with DD and delayed language and/or motor development (n = 4636), and children with TD (n = 40?,95).
The GI symptoms were based on maternal report of constipation, diarrhea, and food allergy/intolerance.
Children with ASD were at significantly increased odds of maternally reported constipation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.7; 95% CI, 1.9-3.8; P
PubMed ID
25806498 View in PubMed
Less detail

Autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy in Norwegian children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123313
Source
Pediatrics. 2012 Jul;130(1):e152-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
Pål Surén
Inger Johanne Bakken
Heidi Aase
Richard Chin
Nina Gunnes
Kari Kveim Lie
Per Magnus
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Synnve Schjølberg
Anne-Siri Øyen
Camilla Stoltenberg
Author Affiliation
Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom. pal.suren@fhi.no
Source
Pediatrics. 2012 Jul;130(1):e152-8
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology
Cerebral Palsy - epidemiology
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Comorbidity
Epilepsy - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Registries
Sex Distribution
Abstract
Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence of neurologic and neurodevelopmental disorders individually, but few have examined them collectively, and there is uncertainty as to what extent they overlap.
The study has determined the proportions of children aged 0 to 11 years with diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and cerebral palsy (CP) in Norway. The data were obtained from the Norwegian Patient Register, which is nationwide and contains diagnoses assigned by Norwegian specialist health services (hospitals and outpatient clinics). The Norwegian Patient Register started collecting individual-level data in 2008, and the follow-up period for the study is years 2008 through 2010.
For ASD, ADHD, and epilepsy, the proportions were highest in the oldest children. At age 11 years, the incidence was 0.7% for ASD, 2.9% for ADHD, and 0.9% for epilepsy. The cumulative incidence is likely to be higher because some cases diagnosed before 2008 were probably missed. For CP, the proportions were ~0.3% for age = 5 years. There was considerable overlap between diagnoses. For all disorders, boys had a significantly increased risk. In school-age children (aged 6-11 years) the male/female ratio was 4.3 for ASD, 2.9 for ADHD, 1.2 for epilepsy, and 1.3 for CP.
The findings demonstrate the significant burden of disease associated with neurologic and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and that this burden is disproportionately skewed toward boys.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22711729 View in PubMed
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Breastfeeding practice in mothers with eating disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100322
Source
Matern Child Nutr. 2010 Jul 1;6(3):243-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2010
Author
Leila Torgersen
Eivind Ystrom
Margaretha Haugen
Helle M Meltzer
Ann Von Holle
Cecilie Knoph Berg
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Cynthia M Bulik
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway. leila.torgersen@fhi.no
Source
Matern Child Nutr. 2010 Jul 1;6(3):243-52
Date
Jul-1-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anorexia Nervosa - epidemiology - psychology
Body mass index
Breast Feeding - epidemiology - psychology
Bulimia Nervosa - epidemiology - psychology
Cohort Studies
Eating Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Feeding Behavior - psychology
Female
Food Habits - psychology
Humans
Norway
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of breastfeeding in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified - purging subtype, with mothers with no eating disorders during the first 6 months after birth. The study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Questionnaire-based information on eating disorder diagnoses and breastfeeding in 39?355 women was used to estimate the risk of cessation of breastfeeding with Cox proportional hazards regression. Almost all women (98%) initially breastfeed their infants, with no statistically significant difference between the eating disorders subgroups and women with no eating disorders. However, the risk of early cessation before 6 months post-partum increased for all subgroups of mothers with eating disorders, compared with mothers with no eating disorders. After adjusting for maternal body mass index, age, education, birthweight and pre-term birth, only mothers with anorexia nervosa [hazard ratios (HR), 2.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-4.53] and eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging subtype (HR, 1.95; 95% CI 1.08-3.53) had increased risk for cessation of breastfeeding There were no differences in the risk of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. These results show that some eating disorders may influence mothers' early feeding practices and indicate that additional support may be necessary to assist women with anorexia nervosa in maintaining breastfeeding.
PubMed ID
20929496 View in PubMed
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Childhood trauma and personality disorder criterion counts: a co-twin control analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105514
Source
J Abnorm Psychol. 2013 Nov;122(4):1070-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Erin C Berenz
Ananda B Amstadter
Steven H Aggen
Gun Peggy Knudsen
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Charles O Gardner
Kenneth S Kendler
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics.
Source
J Abnorm Psychol. 2013 Nov;122(4):1070-6
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child Abuse - psychology
Diseases in Twins
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Norway
Personality Disorders - etiology
Regression Analysis
Sex Factors
Wounds and Injuries - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Correlational studies consistently report relationships between childhood trauma (CT) and most personality disorder (PD) criteria and diagnoses. However, it is not clear whether CT is directly related to PDs or whether common familial factors (i.e., shared environment and/or genetic factors) better account for that relationship. The current study used a cotwin control design to examine support for a direct effect of CT on PD criterion counts. Participants were from the Norwegian Twin Registry (N = 2,780), including a subset (n = 898) of twin pairs (449 pairs, 45% monozygotic [MZ]) discordant for CT meeting DSM-IV Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Criterion A. All participants completed the Norwegian version of the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Significant associations between CT and all PD criterion counts were detected in the general sample; however, the magnitude of observed effects was small, with CT accounting for no more than approximately 1% of variance in PD criterion counts. A significant, yet modest, interactive effect was detected for sex and CT on Schizoid and Schizotypal PD criterion counts, with CT being related to these disorders among women but not men. After common familial factors were accounted for in the discordant twin sample, CT was significantly related to Borderline and Antisocial PD criterion counts, but no other disorders; however, the magnitude of observed effects was quite modest (r2 = .006 for both outcomes), indicating that the small effect observed in the full sample is likely better accounted for by common genetic and/or environmental factors. CT does not appear to be a key factor in PD etiology.
PubMed ID
24364608 View in PubMed
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Continuity in features of anxiety and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in young preschool children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257947
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 Sep;23(9):743-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Kristin Romvig Overgaard
Heidi Aase
Svenn Torgersen
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Beate Oerbeck
Anne Myhre
Pål Zeiner
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Pb. 4959 Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway, k.r.overgaard@medisin.uio.no.
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 Sep;23(9):743-52
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Affective Symptoms - epidemiology
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Attention
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - psychology
Child Behavior - psychology
Child, Preschool
Confidence Intervals
Disease Progression
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Mother-Child Relations
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Abstract
Anxiety disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) develop before school age, but little is known about early developmental pathways. Here we test two hypotheses: first, that early signs of anxiety and ADHD at 18 months predict symptoms of anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years; second, that emotional dysregulation at 18 months predicts the outcome of co-occurring anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years. The study was part of the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The 628 participants were clinically assessed at 3½ years. Questionnaire data collected at 18 months were categorized into early behavioural scales of anxiety, ADHD, and emotional dysregulation. We investigated continuity in features of anxiety and ADHD from 18 months to 3½ years of age through logistic regression analyses. Anxiety symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of anxiety (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, CI = 1.15-1.73) and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.33, CI = 1.15-1.54). ADHD symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of ADHD (OR = 1.51, CI = 1.30-1.76) and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.31, CI = 1.13-1.51). Co-occurring anxiety and ADHD symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of anxiety (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.13-1.84), ADHD (OR = 1.30, CI = 1.11-1.54), and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.13-1.58). We conclude that there were modest continuities in features of anxiety and ADHD through early preschool years, while emotional dysregulation at age 18 months was associated with symptoms of anxiety, ADHD, and co-occurring anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24687273 View in PubMed
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Co-Occurrence of ODD and CD in Preschool Children With Symptoms of ADHD.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289854
Source
J Atten Disord. 2017 Jul; 21(9):741-752
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-2017
Author
Bothild Bendiksen
Elisabeth Svensson
Heidi Aase
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Svein Friis
Anne M Myhre
Pål Zeiner
Author Affiliation
1 Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
Source
J Atten Disord. 2017 Jul; 21(9):741-752
Date
Jul-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - psychology
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Conduct Disorder - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Abstract
Patterns of co-occurrence between ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD) were examined in a sample of non-referred preschool children. ADHD subtypes and sex differences were also explored.
Children aged 3.5 years ( n = 1,048) with high scores on ADHD characteristics were recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and clinically assessed, including a semi-structured psychiatric interview.
In children with ADHD, concurrent ODD was present more often than CD (31% vs. 10%), but having ADHD gave higher increase in the odds of CD than of ODD (ODD: odds ratio [OR] = 6.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [4.2, 10.8]; CD: OR = 17.6, 95% CI = [5.9, 52.9]). We found a greater proportion of children having the combined ADHD subtype as well as more severe inattentiveness among children with co-occurring CD compared with ODD. Sex differences were minor.
There are important differences in co-occurring patterns of ODD and CD in preschool children with ADHD.
PubMed ID
24994876 View in PubMed
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