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34 records – page 1 of 4.

Adding formoterol to budesonide in moderate asthma--health economic results from the FACET study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10200
Source
Respir Med. 2001 Jun;95(6):505-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2001
Author
F. Andersson
E. Stahl
P J Barnes
C G Löfdahl
P M O'Byrne
R A Pauwels
D S Postma
A E Tattersfield
A. Ullman
Author Affiliation
AstraZeneca R&D Lund, Sweden. fredrik.l.andersson@astrazeneca.com
Source
Respir Med. 2001 Jun;95(6):505-12
Date
Jun-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anti-Asthmatic Agents - economics - therapeutic use
Asthma - drug therapy - economics
Budesonide - economics - therapeutic use
Cost Savings
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Drug Therapy, Combination
Ethanolamines - economics - therapeutic use
Great Britain
Health Care Costs
Humans
Middle Aged
Normal Distribution
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Spain
Sweden
Abstract
The FACET (Formoterol and Corticosteroid Establishing Therapy) study established that there is a clear clinical benefit in adding formoterol to budesonide therapy in patients who have persistent symptoms of asthma despite treatment with low to moderate doses of an inhaled corticosteroid. We combined the clinical results from the FACET study with an expert survey on average resource use in connection with mild and severe asthma exacerbations in the U.K., Sweden and Spain. The primary objective of this study was to assess the health economics of adding the inhaled long-acting beta2-agonist formoterol to the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide in the treatment of asthma. The extra costs of adding the inhaled beta2-agonist formoterol to the corticosteroid budesonide in asthmatic patients in Sweden were offset by savings from reduced use of resources for exacerbations. For Spain the picture was mixed. Adding formoterol to low dose budesonide generated savings, whereas for moderate doses of budesonide about 75% of the extra formoterol costs could be recouped. In the U.K., other savings offset about half of the extra cost of formoterol. All cost-effectiveness ratios are within accepted cost-effectiveness ranges reported from previous studies. If productivity losses were included, there were net savings in all three countries, ranging from Euro 267-1183 per patient per year. In conclusion, adding the inhaled, long-acting beta2-agonist formoterol to low-moderate doses of the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide generated significant gains in all outcome measures with partial or complete offset of costs. Adding formoterol to budesonide can thus be considered to be cost-effective.
PubMed ID
11421509 View in PubMed
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Age-specific reference values for serum prostate-specific antigen in a community-based population of healthy Swedish men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature22087
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1997 May;57(3):225-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1997
Author
O. Löfman
T. Lindahl
E. Varenhorst
Author Affiliation
Centre for Public Health Sciences, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1997 May;57(3):225-32
Date
May-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aging - blood
Analysis of Variance
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Normal Distribution
Prostate-Specific Antigen - blood
Random Allocation
Reference Values
Statistics, nonparametric
Sweden
Abstract
To establish normal reference values for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a Swedish population we investigated 878 healthy men, 56-75 years of age. They were randomly selected from a population of 9171 males in this group. Cancer of the prostate was excluded by digital rectal examination. When digital rectal examination was suspicious for carcinoma of the prostate and/or serum PSA > 4 micrograms l-1, fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed. Central values, values of variance and reference limits were defined by a non-parametric method in four age groups. A strong positive correlation between PSA values and age was found and the variance increased with age. The relationship between PSA value and age was non-linear. For the age group 56-60 the upper reference limit (95th percentile) was 4.6 micrograms l-1 (confidence interval, CI: 3.9-5.5). For the age groups 61-65, 66-70 and 71-75 the corresponding values were 4.4 (3.8-5.2), 7.6 (6.5-8.9) and 8.4 micrograms l-1 (7.2-9.8) respectively. For the age groups studied the increment over time of the PSA value was 2-8% per year depending on age, with an average increment per year over 15 years of 4.3%. Overall, 11% of our reference sample had a serum PSA level > 4 micrograms l-1. We consider our study population to be representative for a normal Swedish male population in these age groups.
PubMed ID
9238758 View in PubMed
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An algorithm for detecting high frequency copy number polymorphisms using SNP arrays.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133202
Source
J Comput Biol. 2011 Aug;18(8):955-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Bjarni V Halldórsson
Daníel F Gudbjartsson
Author Affiliation
School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavík University, Reykjavík, Iceland. bjarnivh@ru.is
Source
J Comput Biol. 2011 Aug;18(8):955-66
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Alleles
Base Pairing
Cluster analysis
Computational Biology - methods
DNA Copy Number Variations
Fluorescent Dyes - analysis
Gene Frequency
Genome, Human
Genome-Wide Association Study
Genotype
Humans
Iceland
Markov Chains
Microsatellite Repeats
Normal Distribution
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis - instrumentation - methods
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Abstract
We present a general algorithm for the detection of genomic variants using the Illumina iSelect platform. The Illumina iSelect platform is designed to detect SNPs, but our algorithm allows for the detections of more general forms of variations, including copy number polymorphisms and microsatellites. The algorithm does not rely on a priori information of the type of polymorphism being studied and is designed to genotype call a large number of individuals simultaneously. The algorithm proceeds by initially normalizing intensity and correcting for batch effects. Then each marker is clustered using a modified Gaussian mixture model where we account for variances in the expression of an individuals and the variance measured in bead level intensities of a probe/marker pair. Finally, these clusters are used to determine genotypes. The algorithm was then run on a dataset of 35,000 Icelandic individuals.
PubMed ID
21728861 View in PubMed
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An introduction to multilevel regression models.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194799
Source
Can J Public Health. 2001 Mar-Apr;92(2):150-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
P C Austin
V. Goel
C. van Walraven
Author Affiliation
Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, G-160, 2075 Bayview Avenue, North York, ON, M4N 3M5. peter.austin@ices.on.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2001 Mar-Apr;92(2):150-4
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bias (epidemiology)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Female
Health Services Research - methods
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Normal Distribution
Ontario
Poisson Distribution
Predictive value of tests
Regression Analysis
Abstract
Data in health research are frequently structured hierarchically. For example, data may consist of patients nested within physicians, who in turn may be nested in hospitals or geographic regions. Fitting regression models that ignore the hierarchical structure of the data can lead to false inferences being drawn from the data. Implementing a statistical analysis that takes into account the hierarchical structure of the data requires special methodologies. In this paper, we introduce the concept of hierarchically structured data, and present an introduction to hierarchical regression models. We then compare the performance of a traditional regression model with that of a hierarchical regression model on a dataset relating test utilization at the annual health exam with patient and physician characteristics. In comparing the resultant models, we see that false inferences can be drawn by ignoring the structure of the data.
PubMed ID
11338155 View in PubMed
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Approximate inference for disease mapping with sparse Gaussian processes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142822
Source
Stat Med. 2010 Jul 10;29(15):1580-607
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-10-2010
Author
Jarno Vanhatalo
Ville Pietiläinen
Aki Vehtari
Author Affiliation
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University, P.O. Box 12200, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland. jarno.vanhatalo@tkk.fi
Source
Stat Med. 2010 Jul 10;29(15):1580-607
Date
Jul-10-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol-Related Disorders - mortality
Algorithms
Computer simulation
Disease
Epidemiologic Studies
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Likelihood Functions
Markov Chains
Models, Statistical
Monte Carlo Method
Normal Distribution
Poisson Distribution
Risk
Stochastic Processes
Abstract
Gaussian process (GP) models are widely used in disease mapping as they provide a natural framework for modeling spatial correlations. Their challenges, however, lie in computational burden and memory requirements. In disease mapping models, the other difficulty is inference, which is analytically intractable due to the non-Gaussian observation model. In this paper, we address both these challenges. We show how to efficiently build fully and partially independent conditional (FIC/PIC) sparse approximations for the GP in two-dimensional surface, and how to conduct approximate inference using expectation propagation (EP) algorithm and Laplace approximation (LA). We also propose to combine FIC with a compactly supported covariance function to construct a computationally efficient additive model that can model long and short length-scale spatial correlations simultaneously. The benefit of these approximations is computational. The sparse GPs speed up the computations and reduce the memory requirements. The posterior inference via EP and Laplace approximation is much faster and is practically as accurate as via Markov chain Monte Carlo.
PubMed ID
20552572 View in PubMed
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[A universal approximation of the age dynamics of the main stomatological diseases by using the Gauss equation].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216585
Source
Stomatologiia (Mosk). 1995;74(3):70-1
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
A N Balashov
I A Barannikova
L M Ianovskii
Source
Stomatologiia (Mosk). 1995;74(3):70-1
Date
1995
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Humans
Middle Aged
Mouth Diseases - epidemiology
Normal Distribution
Prevalence
Siberia - epidemiology
Abstract
Time course of the prevalent dental diseases may be satisfactorily approximated by the Gauss equation, permitting a compact and universal representation of epidemiological date. The interpretation of equation parameters is useful from a theoretical and practical viewpoints.
PubMed ID
7570705 View in PubMed
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A Bayesian Analysis of Abundance, Trend, and Population Viability for Harbor Seals in Iliamna Lake, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296889
Source
Risk Anal. 2018 09; 38(9):1988-2009
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
09-2018
Author
Peter L Boveng
Jay M Ver Hoef
David E Withrow
Josh M London
Author Affiliation
Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA, USA.
Source
Risk Anal. 2018 09; 38(9):1988-2009
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alaska
Algorithms
Animals
Bayes Theorem
Female
Lakes
Male
Markov Chains
Models, Statistical
Monte Carlo Method
Normal Distribution
Phoca
Population Dynamics
Regression Analysis
Reproducibility of Results
Risk
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
Harbor seals in Iliamna Lake, Alaska, are a small, isolated population, and one of only two freshwater populations of harbor seals in the world, yet little is known about their abundance or risk for extinction. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to estimate abundance and trend of this population. Observational models were developed from aerial survey and harvest data, and they included effects for time of year and time of day on survey counts. Underlying models of abundance and trend were based on a Leslie matrix model that used prior information on vital rates from the literature. We developed three scenarios for variability in the priors and used them as part of a sensitivity analysis. The models were fitted using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The population production rate implied by the vital rate estimates was about 5% per year, very similar to the average annual harvest rate. After a period of growth in the 1980s, the population appears to be relatively stable at around 400 individuals. A population viability analysis assessing the risk of quasi-extinction, defined as any reduction to 50 animals or below in the next 100 years, ranged from 1% to 3%, depending on the prior scenario. Although this is moderately low risk, it does not include genetic or catastrophic environmental events, which may have occurred to the population in the past, so our results should be applied cautiously.
PubMed ID
29570825 View in PubMed
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A birth weight adjusted comparison of perinatal mortality in the Faroe Islands and Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59369
Source
Scand J Soc Med. 1994 Sep;22(3):219-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1994
Author
S F Olsen
J. Olsen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Aarhus.
Source
Scand J Soc Med. 1994 Sep;22(3):219-24
Date
Sep-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth weight
Comparative Study
Denmark
Humans
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Models, Theoretical
Normal Distribution
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
The objectives were to compare perinatal mortality (PNM) in the Faroes and Denmark while accounting for the high birth weights in the Faroes, and to discuss methodological aspects related to this task. We applied conventional methods employing absolute birth weight standards, and the Wilcox-Russell way of comparing relative birth weights. During 1977-85 perinatal mortality (PNM) in the Faroes was 14.7 (98 cases) per 1,000 births, and 1.57 times higher than that in Denmark. Conventional method: birth weight-standardised risk ratio for PNM in the Faroes v Denmark was 1.95; the risk ratio declined with increasing birth weight. Wilcox-Russell model: the risk tended to be more uniformly increased across the birth weight distribution when babies with same relative birth weights were compared; the residual component of the birth weight distribution (i.e. the excess of observed births in the lower tail beyond what could be predicted by a Gaussian distribution) was 2.1% in the Faroes and 3.6% in Denmark, which does not fit with the model assumption that the size of the residual component is a strong determinant of a population's PNM.
PubMed ID
7846481 View in PubMed
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Bone mineral density in normal Swedish women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209467
Source
Bone. 1997 Feb;20(2):167-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1997
Author
O. Löfman
L. Larsson
I. Ross
G. Toss
K. Berglund
Author Affiliation
Osteoporosis Unit, University Hospital of Linköping, Sweden.
Source
Bone. 1997 Feb;20(2):167-74
Date
Feb-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bone Density - physiology
Female
Forearm - radiography
Hip - radiography
Humans
Middle Aged
Normal Distribution
Prospective Studies
Reference Values
Spine - radiography
Sweden
Abstract
We examined 429 women, aged 20-80 years, randomly selected from the population register to establish normal values for bone mineral density (BMD) in Swedish women. BMD of the spine and hip was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; Hologic QDR 1000) and in the forearm by single photon absorptiometry (SPA; Molsgaard ND-1100). The recalled age of menarche was negatively correlated to BMD at all ages. There was no significant change in BMD from 20-49 years at any site except a slight decline at Ward's triangle. Bone loss was rapid at all sites during the first decade after menopause. Thereafter, BMD declined slowly in the trochanter and total hip but more rapidly in the forearm, femoral neck, and Ward's triangle. BMD in the spine even increased in the eighth decade probably due to osteoarthritis. The average change in forearm BMD during the 15 perimenopausal years comprising mean age for menopause +/- 2 SD (43-57 years) was -0.4% per year in premenopausal females and -1.6% per year in postmenopausal females. The corresponding annual percental change was, for the spine, +0.2 and -1.7; neck, -0.7 and -1.7; trochanter, +0.5 and -1.5; and Ward's triangle, -0.1% and -2.2%, respectively. Our normal values for lumbar spine BMD prior to menopause did not differ from published values or the manufacturer's normal values; however, our spine BMD values for the first decade after menopause were significantly lower (approximately 10%) than in other studies. Our femoral neck BMD values for younger women were, like those of several other groups, significantly lower than the manufacturer's normal values, but our sample of young women in this study was small. The prevalence of osteoporosis, if defined as t score
PubMed ID
9028542 View in PubMed
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Commingling and segregation analysis of blood pressure in a French-Canadian population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature103498
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 1990 Jan;46(1):37-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1990
Author
T. Rice
C. Bouchard
I B Borecki
D C Rao
Author Affiliation
Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110.
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 1990 Jan;46(1):37-44
Date
Jan-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Blood Pressure - genetics
Genetics, Medical
Humans
Multivariate Analysis
Normal Distribution
Quebec
Software
Abstract
Commingling and segregation of age-sex-adjusted systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) were examined in 1,560 individuals from 374 French-Canadian nuclear families. After correction for skewness, evidence in favor of two commingled distributions was found for SBP in the combined data (parents and offspring) and in parents, but not in offspring. Segregation analysis (using the computer program POINTER) suggested that a multifactorial contribution to all three phenotypes was greater in offspring than in parents, which could be the result of either polygenic or shared environmental components relevant to sibships, or both. Statistical evidence was found for a major effect on SBP. However, Mendelian transmission of the major effect was rejected, and no transmission of the major effect (equal tau's) was not. This is just the opposite to what would be expected if the major effect was due to a major gene, and it would ordinarily be considered as sufficient evidence to refute a major gene effect on SBP. However, the commingling in parents but not in offspring (who are all below 26 years of age), and the finding of equal transmission probabilities (nearly equal to 1), are compatible with an alternative interpretation. It is possible that there is a real major gene effect on SBP but that the genotype for elevated SBP has not yet expressed itself in the offspring as they have not yet gone through the risk period. Accordingly, this possibility needs to be evaluated further in additional studies involving older offspring.
Notes
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Cites: Hum Hered. 1971;21(6):523-425149961
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 1974 Jul;26(4):489-5034842773
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Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 1983 Mar;37(3):461-76829488
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Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1984 Jul;120(1):131-446741914
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Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 1989 Aug;45(2):240-512757030
PubMed ID
2294754 View in PubMed
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34 records – page 1 of 4.