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Antidepressants and the risk of hyponatremia: a Danish register-based population study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287562
Source
BMJ Open. 2016 May 18;6(5):e011200
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-18-2016
Author
Katja Biering Leth-Møller
Annette Højmann Hansen
Maia Torstensson
Stig Ejdrup Andersen
Lars Ødum
Gunnar Gislasson
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Ellen Astrid Holm
Source
BMJ Open. 2016 May 18;6(5):e011200
Date
May-18-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic - therapeutic use
Citalopram - therapeutic use
Clomipramine - therapeutic use
Denmark - epidemiology
Duloxetine Hydrochloride - therapeutic use
Female
Humans
Hyponatremia - blood - epidemiology
Incidence
Male
Mianserin - analogs & derivatives - therapeutic use
Middle Aged
Registries
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Sodium - blood
Venlafaxine Hydrochloride - therapeutic use
Abstract
To examine the association between classes of antidepressants and hyponatremia, and between specific antidepressants and hyponatremia.
Retrospective register-based cohort study using nationwide registers from 1998 to 2012.
The North Denmark Region.
In total, 638 352 individuals were included.
Plasma sodium was obtained from the LABKA database. The primary outcome was hyponatremia defined as plasma sodium (p-sodium) below 135 mmol/L and secondary outcome was severe hyponatremia defined as p-sodium below 130 mmol/L. The association between use of specific antidepressants and hyponatremia was analysed using multivariable Poisson regression models.
An event of hyponatremia occurred in 72 509 individuals and 11.36% (n=6476) of these events happened during treatment with antidepressants. Incidence rate ratios and CIs for the association with hyponatremia in the first p-sodium measured after initiation of treatment were for citalopram 7.8 (CI 7.42 to 8.20); clomipramine 4.93 (CI 2.72 to 8.94); duloxetine 2.05 (CI 1.44 to 292); venlafaxine 2.90 (CI 2.43 to 3.46); mirtazapine 2.95 (CI 2.71 to 3.21); and mianserin 0.90 (CI 0.71 to 1.14).
All antidepressants except mianserin are associated with hyponatremia. The association is strongest with citalopram and lowest with duloxetine, venlafaxine and mirtazapine.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27194321 View in PubMed
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Effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline on the ear vessel in cold- and warm- adapted rabbits.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298681
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical documentary report TDR-62-23. 16 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
October 1962
REF ALASKA _,-TDR-62-23 ~c 955 .U9 no.62-23 1962 COPY 1 --- ~FFECTS OF ADRENALINE AND NORADRENALINE ON THE EAR VESSEL IN COLD- AND WARM-ADAPTED RABBITS TECHNICAL DOCUMENTARY REPORT AAL-TDR- 62-23 October 1962 ARCTIC AEROMEDICAL LABORATORY AEROSPACE MEDICAL DIVISION AIR FORCE
  1 document  
Author
Honda, N.
Judy, W.V.
Carlson, L.D.
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical documentary report TDR-62-23. 16 p.
Date
October 1962
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
1512644
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Rabbits
Cold Temperature
Exposure
Adrenaline
Noradrenaline
Acclimatized
Abstract
Cold exposure increases the secretion of catechol amines and enhances the effect of these hormones on metabolism. Whether the sensitivity of peripheral vessels to epinephrine and norepinephrine is altered by cold exposure has not been reported. Warm- adapted (27° ± 1° C) and cold-adapted (5° ± 1 ° C) rabbits were studied under chloralose and urethane anesthesia. Epinephrine and norepinephrine were infused (3 gamma/kg/min) through an ear vein. Rectal plus ear temperature, EKG, blood flow and venous pressure in the ear were measured. Compliance of veins was calculated from the ?V / ?P at pressures between 20 and 30 mm Hg.
After prolonged cold exposure rabbits responded to catechol amine infusion (adrenaline and noradrenaline) with less change in heart rate during infusion and a more rapid return to control levels following infusion; with less decrease in ear temperature during infusion and a more rapid return to control levels following infusion; less increase in peripheral resistance, and less effect on compliance of the capacitance vessels (veins).
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.62-23
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Responses of cold- and warm-adapted dogs to infused noradrenalin and acute body cooling.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298777
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Alaska Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical documentary report TDR-64-21. 10 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
February 1965
REF ALASKA A A L-TR-64-21 RC 955 .ug no . 64- 21 1965 copy 1 RESPONSES OF COLD- AND WARM-ADAPTED DOGS T 0 INFUSED NORADRENALIN AND ACUTE BODY COOLING Tetsuo Nagasaka and Loren D. Carlson F ebruary 1965 ARCTIC AEROMEDICAL LABORATORY AEROSPACE M.EDICAL DIVISION AIR FORCE SYSTEMS
  1 document  
Author
Nagasaka, Tetsuo
Carlson, Loren D.
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Alaska Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical documentary report TDR-64-21. 10 p.
Date
February 1965
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
906396
Keywords
Animals
Dogs
Cold Temperature
Exposure
Body temperature
Oxygen consumption
Heart rate
Shivering
Noradrenalin
Adaptation
Acute body cooling
Thermogenesis
Calorigenic
Abstract
A total of 12 experiments was done in cold-adapted (C-A) and warm-adapted (W -A) beagle dogs, kept more than 40 days at -10° C and 28° C, respectively. The animals, anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (30 mg/kg), were paralyzed with Flaxedil (5 mg/kg/hour) and mechanically ventilated at 28-30° C. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and colonic, pinna and paw skin temperatures were measured continuously. The dogs were infused with noradrenalin (1.25 µg/kg/min) for 20 minutes at 30° C and after 45 minutes of acute cold exposure to 5° C. At 28-30° C, basal O2 consumption was higher in C-A dogs. Oxygen consumption of C-A dogs increased with a slight', increase in the heart rate during the initial 18-20 minutes after body cooling and then decreased. In W-A dogs, O2 consumption decreased continuously after acute cold exposure. Calorigenic effects of infused noradrenalin were consistent in C-A and W-A dogs at 30° and 5° C, but there was no difference between the increased amount of O2 consumption from the initial levels in both groups. Noradrenalin caused an increase of the heart rate in W-A dogs at 30° and 5° C, with decrease or no change in C-A dogs. Colonic, pinna and paw skin temperatures were significantly higher in C-A than in W-A dogs. Noradrenalin caused an increase in the temperatures, but the effect of the drug was more prominent in W-A than in C-A animals at lower temperature. These results suggest that the mechanism of nonshivering heat production is well developed by cold acclimation in dogs, and that the increase of this mechanism is due rather to the increase of noradrenalin content in blood than to increased sensitivity of the animals to the calorigenic effects of noradrenalin.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.64-21
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Serum concentrations of thyroid and adrenal hormones and TSH in men after repeated 1h stays in a cold room

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102355
Source
Pages 604-608 in P. Bjerregaard et al., eds. Part II, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Harstad, Norway, June 5-9, 2000. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2001;60(4)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2001
the cold-induced sympathetic response. (Int j Circumpalar Health 2001; 60:604-608) he responses of endocrine glands to cold exposure have been widely studied. A single cold exposure leads to in- creased secretion of noradrenaline and decreased secretions of growth hormone and prolactin in
  1 document  
Author
Korhonen, I
Hassi, J
Leppäluoto, J
Leppaluoto, J
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiology and Thule Institute, University of Oulu
Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland
Source
Pages 604-608 in P. Bjerregaard et al., eds. Part II, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Harstad, Norway, June 5-9, 2000. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2001;60(4)
Date
Nov-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Keywords
Adaptation
Adrenal hormone
Adrenaline
Cold air exposure
Noradrenaline
Sympathetic response
Thyroid hormone
TSH
Abstract
We exposed six healthy men to 1-h cold air (10° C) daily for 11 days and measured adrenal and thyroid hormones and TSH in serum before and after the cold air exposure on days 0, 5, and 10. We observed that on days 0, 5, and 10 the resting levels and the levels after the cold exposure in serum adrenaline, thyroid hormones, and TSH did not significantly change, whereas the serum noradrenaline levels showed a significant (2.2- to 2.5-fold) increase in response to the cold air exposures. The increases were similar, indicating that the subjects did not show signs of habituation in their noradrenaline responses. Therefore the 1-h cold air exposure is not sufficiently intensive to reduce the cold-induced sympathetic response.
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Use of SSRI and SNRI Antidepressants during Pregnancy: A Population-Based Study from Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273860
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0144474
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Helga Zoega
Helle Kieler
Mette Nørgaard
Kari Furu
Unnur Valdimarsdottir
Lena Brandt
Bengt Haglund
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0144474
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Denmark - epidemiology
Depression - drug therapy - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder - drug therapy - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - drug therapy
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The purpose was to describe utilization of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), including trends in prevalence, characteristics of users, drug switching and changes in prescribed doses in a large group of pregnant women across four Nordic countries.
A drug utilization study based on linked individual-level data from the nationwide prescription- and medical birth registers in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The study population comprised all pregnancies in these countries, resulting in a live birth or stillbirth after gestational week 22 from January 1st 2008 to December 31st 2012 (N = 1 162 470). In addition to the main study drugs SSRIs and SNRIs, we included (concurrent) use of other antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics and hypnotics.
A total of 38 219 (3.3%) pregnancies were exposed to SSRIs and 5 634 (0.5%) to SNRIs. Prevalence of SSRI and SNRI use varied by country (1.8% in Norway to 7.0% in Iceland). Use and prescribed dosages decreased with each passing trimester of pregnancy; prevalence was 2.7% at conception, and 2.1%, 1.7% and 1.3% respectively in 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester. In 0.6% of pregnancies women filled a prescription before pregnancy and in every trimester. In one third of exposed pregnancies, women were also dispensed anxiolytics, hypnotics or sedatives.
Use of SSRI and SNRI use during pregnancy varied between the Nordic countries, but the overall prevalence remained low and relatively stable from 2008 to 2012. The low prevalence of use and high proportion of women who discontinue treatment in pregnancy raise questions about adequate treatment of depression in pregnant women.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26657647 View in PubMed
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