The do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order is a mechanism of withholding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The lack of DNR guidelines specific for acute stroke may result in many stroke patients receiving unnecessary and futile resuscitation and ventilator-assisted breathing.
A prospective multicenter evaluation of disease-specific criteria for DNR orders in acute stroke was initiated using a modified Delphi process. The participants were the Canadian and Western New York Stroke Consortium members who are closely involved in caring for acute stroke patients and conducting clinical trials at the academic centers. Previously published provisional criteria were reviewed by the participants. Modifications were made to the criteria until statistically significant agreement (P
Human adiposity is highly heritable, but few of the genes that predispose to obesity in most humans are known. We tested candidate genes in pathways related to food intake and energy expenditure for association with measures of adiposity.
We studied 355 genetic variants in 30 candidate genes in 7 molecular pathways related to obesity in two groups of adult subjects: 1,982 unrelated European Americans living in the New York metropolitan area drawn from the extremes of their body mass index (BMI) distribution and 593 related Yup'ik Eskimos living in rural Alaska characterized for BMI, body composition, waist circumference, and skin fold thicknesses. Data were analyzed by using a mixed model in conjunction with a false discovery rate (FDR) procedure to correct for multiple testing.
After correcting for multiple testing, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Ghrelin (GHRL) (rs35682 and rs35683) were associated with BMI in the New York European Americans. This association was not replicated in the Yup'ik participants. There was no evidence for gene x gene interactions among genes within the same molecular pathway after adjusting for multiple testing via FDR control procedure.
Genetic variation in GHRL may have a modest impact on BMI in European Americans.
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Analysis of HLA haplotype distributions in relation to major affective disorder in affected sibling pairs and affected aunt or uncle and niece or nephew pairs confirmed that HLA-region genes do contribute to susceptibility to affective disorder. The data indicated that this effect may be greater in unipolar than in bipolar disorder, and more apparent in families with few affected members than in heavily loaded families. Nonrandom assortment of HLA haplotypes to affected and unaffected offspring in "low load" families occurred principally for the haplotype transmitted from the side of the family without affective disorder. We conclude that HLA-region genes contribute to but are not the only factor in susceptibility to major depression.
In 2014 presumably healthy men aged 40-59 yr the prevalence of previously undiagnosed angina pectoris was assessed by two angina questionnaires: (1) World Health Organization Questionnaire (WHO-Q) and (2) Greater New York Health Insurance Plan Survey Questionnaire (NY-Q). The angina prevalence given by the questionnaires singly or in combination varied between 1.15 and 4.7% (lowest prevalence by the WHO-Q interview version (WHO-Qi) and highest by the WHO-Q self-administered version and the NY-Q in combination), indicating a considerable variation in prevalence with variation in criteria used. Validation of the questionnaires by means of (1) coronary angiography, and (2) follow-up in selected cases, indicated NY-Q superiority over WHO-Q in predicting the presence of coronary heart disease (CHD). WHO-Qi had a particularly low sensitivity without being more specific. However, CHD-risk factor patterns in subgroups of individuals classified as angina-positive or -negative by the respective questionnaires were similar.
ECG of 322 patients with various cardiovascular diseases allowed the conclusion on the occurrence of anomalous chordae of the heart in 21.7% of cases. The chordae had no effect on the disease diagnosis, running, hemodynamics, left ventricular myocardial mass.