A study of patients registered in the adolescent rooms of the psychoneurological outpatient centres of two districts of Moscow showed that the structure of psychic pathology of this population is characterized by a greater proportion, as compared with children, of psychotic forms, with non-psychotic psychic diseases and mental retardation still occupying the leading place. Almost one-third of patients (largely those with non-psychotic forms of psychogenic and exogenous-organic nature and a superficial level of disturbances observed) have good prognosis in terms of their cure including the discarding off the record in the relevant dispensary. Activation of extrahospital forms of care including improvement of the microsocial environment is required.
There is a considerable interest in the possible relationship between psychosocial factors and the onset of breast cancer. This cohort study was based upon two nationwide and population-based central registers: The Danish Psychiatric Central Register, which contains all cases of psychiatric admissions, and The Danish Cancer Registry, which contains all cases of cancer. The register-linkage was accomplished by using a personal identification number. The study population comprised all women admitted to psychiatric departments or psychiatric hospitals in Denmark between 1969 and 1993 with an affective or a neurotic disorder. Overall, 66,648 women comprising 199,910 admissions and 775,522 person-years were included. The incidence of breast cancer in the cohort was compared with the national breast cancer incidence rates adjusted for age and calendar time. In all, 1270 women with affective or neurotic disorders developed breast cancer subsequent to the first admission as compared with the 1242 women expected, standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.97-1.08). None of the hypothetical risk factors: type of diagnosis, age or calendar period at cohort entry, age at breast cancer, alcohol abuse, alcohol/drug abuse without further specification, total number of admissions, total length of admissions, or time from first admission showed a statistically significant effect on the relative risk of breast cancer. We found no support for the hypothesis that women admitted to a psychiatric department with an affective or a neurotic disorder subsequently have an increased risk of breast cancer.
Cardiovascular fitness in late adolescence is associated with future risk of depression. Relationships with other mental disorders need elucidation. This study investigated whether fitness in late adolescence is associated with future risk of serious non-affective mental disorders. Further, we examined how having an affected brother might impact the relationship.
Prospective, population-based cohort study of 1 109 786 Swedish male conscripts with no history of mental illness, who underwent conscription examinations at age 18 between 1968 and 2005. Cardiovascular fitness was objectively measured at conscription using a bicycle ergometer test. During the follow-up (3-42 years), incident cases of serious non-affective mental disorders (schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders, other psychotic disorders and neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders) were identified through the Swedish National Hospital Discharge Register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the influence of cardiovascular fitness at conscription and risk of serious non-affective mental disorders later in life.
Low fitness was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders [hazard ratio (HR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-1.61], other psychotic disorders (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.27-1.56), and neurotic or stress-related and somatoform disorders (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.37-1.54). Relationships persisted in models that included illness in brothers.
Lower fitness in late adolescent males is associated with increased risk of serious non-affective mental disorders in adulthood.
We have reported cross-sectional evidence that behavioral similarities of adult monozygotic (MZ) cotwins are associated with their age at initial separation and the frequency of their subsequent social interaction (Kaprio et al., 1987; Rose et al., 1988; Rose and Kaprio, 1988). Twins who separated early and twins in infrequent interaction were less alike. Data for those reports came from a 1981 survey of the Finnish Twin Cohort. The Finnish cohort had been surveyed in 1975 with a similar questionnaire, and we now report a longitudinal analysis of the 1975-1981 surveys. All cohabiting MZ cotwins, ages 18-25 at the 1975 baseline, were followed up in 1981, and pairwise similarities at baseline and follow-up were compared for three groups: MZ pairs that remained cohabiting, separated pairs in which the cotwins retained regular contact with one another, and separated cotwins whose social interactions at follow-up were infrequent. For alcohol consumption and EPI Neuroticism scores, relative similarities of the MZ cotwins at follow-up paralleled the relative frequencies of their social contact; baseline differences in resemblance for Extraversion scores preceded follow-up differences in social interaction. These findings clarify the directional nature of associations found in our cross-sectional data and provide new, more compelling evidence of effects of shared experience on sibling resemblance for some dimensions of adult behavior.
The debate on the potentially adverse effects of long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents has mainly been based on observations in cross-sectional studies. We present results from a retrospective cohort study of three cohorts: 11,542 industrial and house painters, 36,899 construction workers, and 9,314 workers in food processing, all identified by the 1970 Norwegian census. The cohorts were followed to the end of 1987 for registration of disability pensioning by linkage of the census files to the files of the National Insurance Administration. The analysis revealed an increased risk for disability pensioning due to neurosis among the painters, compared with construction workers (rate ratio = 1.62; 95% confidence interval = 1.36-1.93) and compared with the workers in food processing (rate ratio = 1.84; 95% confidence interval = 1.42-2.38). The painters were also at increased risk of disability pensioning due to alcoholism. We found no major differences in ischemic heart diseases, disability pensioning due to all causes, or overall mortality. These results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to organic solvents is a risk factor for disabling effects on the central nervous system.
OBJECTIVE: To compare parent-reported problems for children in 12 cultures. METHOD: Child Behavior Checklists were analyzed for 13,697 children and adolescents, aged 6 through 17 years, from general population samples in Australia, Belgium, China, Germany, Greece, Israel, Jamaica, the Netherlands, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. RESULTS: Comparisons of 12 cultures across ages 6 through 11 and 9 cultures across ages 6 through 17 yielded medium effect sizes for cross-cultural variations in Total Problem, Externalizing, and Internalizing scores. Puerto Rican scores were the highest, while Swedish scores were the lowest. With great cross-cultural consistency, Total and Externalizing scores declined with age, while Internalizing scores increased; boys obtained higher Total and Externalizing scores but lower Internalizing scores than girls. Cross-cultural correlations were high among the mean item scores. CONCLUSIONS: Empirically based assessment provides a robust methodology for assessing and comparing problems reported for children from diverse cultures. Age and gender variations are cross-culturally consistent. Although clinical cutoff points should not necessarily be uniform across all cultures, empirically based assessment offers a cost-effective way to identify problems for which children from diverse cultural backgrounds may need help.
District psychiatric services often supplement intramural mental health programmes. They usually result in an increase in the number of referrals to the mental health facilities, which reflects a cumulative need for psychiatric examination and treatment in the population. A significant decrease in the annual first referral rates per 1000 inhabitants aged 15 years and above is apparent in an analysis of the trends in the Danish Samsø community psychiatric service from its inception in 1957 until 1982. The average annual rates were 19.4 in the first 5-year period, 10.0 in the second 5-year period, and 8.4 in the 'steady state period' from 1967 to 1982. The conclusion is, therefore, that the work load connected with the cumulative need for psychiatric examination and treatment should be terminated in approximately 10 years. A comparison of the two 5-year periods, 1957-61 and 1978-82, demonstrated a decrease in first referral rates in almost all diagnostic groups: this is significant among manic-depressive psychoses, neurotic states and unspecified mental disorders. The rates of no mental disorders and senile and arteriosclerotic psychoses were almost unchanged. In the 10-year age groups there was a decrease in first referral rates for all groups, except for the groups aged 75 years and above whose rates were unchanged. The concept of cumulative need for psychiatric examination and treatment is discussed in relation to the reports of various district psychiatric service programmes in different European countries.