Twenty-two patients with brain injury who died within 24 days after admission to the hospital were studied. Autonomous regulation was studied using a method of variation cardiointervalography (VCIG), humoral immunity - by a method of gel radial immunodiffusion, contents of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and hydrocortisone - by a radioimmune method. VCIG registration and blood sampling were carried out in the morning in 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-14, 15-18 and 19-22 days after admission to the hospital. A control group included 10 healthy people. A comparison group consisted of 15 patients survived after the severe brain injury. In patients with the fatal brain injury, the duration of adrenocortical stage was on average 3 weeks that was comparable to the parameters of survived patients. The immunological reactions were characterized by relatively higher concentrations of immunoglobulins in the first days of admission. In the following days, their levels fell down. The death occurred mostly in the 1st week when the levels of ACTH and cortisol in the peripheral blood and parameters of sympatic tone were maximal that might indicate the overstrain of autonomous and endocrine systems and in the 19-22 days in the period of the dramatic reduction of hormone production (immunological hole) and exhaustion of adaptive-compensation mechanisms as revealed by VCIG data.
BACKGROUND: Information processing and stress tolerance are necessary features for instrument flying (IFR), especially among student pilots. Psychological workload of IFR flight may lead to stress reactions such as neuroendocrine activity. METHODS: Neuroendocrine responses to an IFR flight with Vinka piston-engined primary trainer were studied in 35 male volunteers who participated in the basic military flying course of the Finnish Air Force (FAF). The student pilots performed a 40-min IFR flight mission and a control session on land in randomized order between 11.00 h and 15.00 h. The IFR flight included 3 NDB approaches and was evaluated by flight instructors. Blood samples were collected 15 min before, 5 min and 60 min after the flight as well as control session, and. Plasma ACTH, beta3-endorphin (BE), cortisol, prolactin, adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA) were measured. Psychological evaluations included psychomotor test (Wiener), Multi Coordination and Attention Test, ability tests and personality tests (CMPS and 16 PF). The overall psychological evaluation was made by an aviation psychologist. RESULTS: Plasma ACTH was significantly higher before and 5 min after the flight compared with control levels, but plasma BE increased significantly only before the flight. Plasma cortisol was significantly elevated before and 5 min after the flight. Plasma prolactin, NA and A increases were significant 5 min after the flight. High A levels after the flight correlated significantly with poor IFR flight performance as well as with poor psychomotor test results. CONCLUSIONS: The plasma prolactin and NA increases after the flight represented a direct type of stress reaction to the flight situation. The plasma BE response to IFR flight was an anticipatory stress reaction, but plasma ACTH, cortisol and A responses included both anticipatory and direct types of stress reactions. Psychological factors, flight performance and neuroendocrine responses to IFR flight appear to be associated with each other. Therefore, neuroendocrine reactions as a response to the psychological workload of military flying could be used for identifying stress tolerance in military pilots.
In recent years, diffuse neuroendocrine system (DNES) in the digestive tract attracted worldwide attention. Cells throughout the digestive tract receive information in many forms, including chemical messengers that emanate from other cells. At the turn of XIX century, the concept of nervism or entire neural control of digestive functions, developed by Pavlov prevailed. The prototype for chemical communication came with discovery of the first hormone, secretin and histamine, a non-nervous and non-gastrin compound by L.Popielski from Lviv university. This review presents past and present advances in physiological mechanisms underlying digestion and newly recognized several groups of hormones and transmitters, that produced by digestive diffuse neuroendocrine system cells. Two-way communication pathways operate between the brain and the gut, each comprising afferent fibers signaling sensory information from the gut to the brain and efferent fibers transmitting signals in opposite direction. Short intramural and long extramural reflexes are triggered as well as various gut hormones are released by feeding that "cooperate" with the "brain-gut axis" in alteration of the digestive exocrine and endocrine secretion, motility and blood circulation and feeding behavior. Up till now, researches about gastric DNES in human and animal have been reported, but the research data about representation DNES in oral cavity are scarce. In the present paper, described ultrastructure of oral endocrinocytes from rat gum mucous by electron-microscopic analysis method. Their morphological feature provides evidence of neuroendocrine acting mode. This research can morphologically prove that the oral DNES cells is almost the same as of stomach and gut. It shows morphological evidence of representation brain -gut axis in oral cavity with an neuroendocrine-exocrine mode of peptide action. It suggests that the oral DNES play important role in the diversity of physiological functions, mucosal repair and reconstitutional process and homeostasis in oral cavity. Future investigation of oral DNES has opened new therapeutic approaches to various mucous injury-related diseases.