Recent studies regarding the effects of above average intelligence and neuropsychological performance have been mixed with Dodrill (1977) suggesting that above-average performances on neuropsychological test scores should not be expected when intellectual abilities are above average and Tremont, Hoffman, Scott and Adams (in press) clearly suggesting better neuropsychological skills in the higher IQ group. This paper described a reanalysis of a previously presented Canadian data-set assembled by Pauker (1980) of three hundred and sixty-three persons (152 males, 211 females) who were administered the core tests of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery (HRNTB) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The results were that subjects with higher intelligence had better neuropsychological test score performances except for the Finger Tapping with the dominant hand test.
CanDRIVE(1): a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Institute of Aging funded New Emerging Team, Elisabeth-Bruyère Research Institute, 43 Bruyère Street, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 5C8. email@example.com
Older drivers have one of the highest motor vehicle crash (MVC) rates per kilometer driven, largely due to the functional effects of the accumulation, and progression of age-associated medical conditions that eventually impact on fitness-to-drive. Consequently, physicians in many jurisdictions are legally mandated to report to licensing authorities patients who are judged to be medically at risk for MVCs. Unfortunately, physicians lack evidence-based tools to assess the fitness-to-drive of their older patients. This paper reports on a pilot study that examines the acceptability and association with MVC of components of a comprehensive clinical assessment battery.
To evaluate the acceptability to participants of components of a comprehensive assessment battery, and to explore potential predictors of MVC that can be employed in front-line clinical settings.
Case-control study of 10 older drivers presenting to a tertiary care hospital emergency department after involvement in an MVC and 20 age-matched controls.
The measures tested were generally found to be acceptable to participants. Positive associations (p
We present a Finland-Swedish adaptation of the Sweden-Swedish group screening test for dyslexia for adults and young adults DUVAN (Lundberg & Wolff, 2003) together with normative data from 143 Finland-Swedish university students. The test is based on the widely held phonological deficit hypothesis of dyslexia and consists of a self-report and five subtests tapping phonological working memory, phonological representation, phonological awareness, and orthographic skill. We describe the test adaptation procedure and show that the internal reliability of the new test version is comparable to the original one. Our results indicate that the language background (Swedish, Finnish, early simultaneous Swedish-Finnish bilingualism) should be taken into account when interpreting the results on the Finland-Swedish DUVAN test. We show that the FS-DUVAN differentiates a group of students with dyslexia diagnosis from normals, and that a low performance on the FS-DUVAN correlates with a positive self-report on familial dyslexia and with a history of special education in school. Finally, we analyze the sensitivity and specificity of the FS-DUVAN for dyslexia among university students.
This study examined the distribution of alcohol-related and other dementias in a sample of 130 cognitively impaired residents of long-term care facilities in a Northern Ontario community. Study procedures entailed standardized psychiatric, neurological, and neuropsychological evaluations. Diagnoses of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and vascular dementia were based on criteria of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. The diagnosis of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) was based on extensive review of medical history to assess before alcohol abuse and stabilization or improvement in cognitive functioning following institutionalization in conjunction with no other identifiable cause of dementia. ARD comprised 24% of this population compared with DAT (35%), vascular dementia (19%), and other causes (22%). The ARD group was, on average, 10 years younger than the other groups. It had nearly twice the average length of institutionalization and had milder cognitive impairment on both clinical ratings and neuropsychological tests. A diagnosis of ARD was present in the medical records for only 25% of patients in this group. These findings suggest that ARD may be more common than previously suspected in the distribution of dementias in long-term care facilities.
Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is critical for adequate treatment and care. Recently it has been shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be important in preclinical detection of AD. The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in memory-related brain activation between persons with high versus low risk for AD. This was achieved by combining a validated neurocognitive screening battery (the 7-minutes test) with memory assessment and fMRI.
One hundred two healthy community-living persons with subjective memory complaints were recruited through advertisement and tested with the 7-minutes test. Based on their test performance they were classified as having either high (n = 8) or low risk (n = 94) for AD. Six high-risk individuals and six age-, sex-, and education-matched low-risk individuals were investigated with fMRI while engaged in episodic memory tasks.
The high-risk individuals performed worse than low-risk individuals on tests of episodic memory. Patterns of brain activity during episodic encoding and retrieval showed significant group differences (p
We report clinical, molecular, neuroimaging and neuropathological features of a Danish family with autosomal dominant inherited dementia, a clinical phenotype resembling Alzheimer's disease and a pathogenic mutation (R406W) in the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene. Pre-symptomatic and affected family members underwent multidisciplinary (clinical, molecular, neuroimaging and neuropathological) examinations. Treatment with memantine in a family member with early symptoms, based on the clinical phenotype and the lack of specific treatment, appears to stabilize the disease course and increase the glucose metabolism in cortical and subcortical areas, as determined by serial [F(18)]FDG-PET scanning before and after initiation of treatment. Neuropathological examination of a second affected and mutation-positive family member showed moderate atrophy of the temporal lobes including the hippocampi. Microscopy revealed abundant numbers of tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles in all cortical areas and in some brainstem nuclei corresponding to a diagnosis of frontotemporal lobe degeneration on the basis of a MAPT mutation. The clinical and genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant inherited dementia must be taken into account in the genetic counselling and genetic testing of families with autosomal dominantly inherited dementia in general.
The association of self-reported subclinical depressive symptoms and negative mood states with cognitive functioning was evaluated in 51 consecutive newly diagnosed adult persons with epilepsy.
Emotional state was assessed with Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Brief Depression Scale (BDS) and was correlated with a battery of neuropsychological tests.
Patients with epilepsy reported more depressive symptoms in BDS than in controls. They also had more feeling of bewilderment and less vigor on POMS. Higher scores in BDS and in POMS inefficiency scale were associated with slower nondominant hand tapping, but emotional state did not correlate with cognitive measures within the epilepsy group.
Self-reported symptoms of depression and negative mood states were not extensively or significantly associated with cognitive function, and they do not explain the cognitive impairments observed in cognition in newly diagnosed patients with epilepsy.
The present study surveyed assessment practices and test usage patterns among clinical neuropsychologists. Respondents were 747 North American, doctorate-level psychologists (40% usable response rate) affiliated with Division 40 of the American Psychological Association (APA), the National Academy of Neuropsychology (NAN), or the International Neuropsychological Society (INS). Respondents first provided basic demographic and practice-related information and reported their most frequently utilized instruments. Overall, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales and Wechsler Memory Scales were most frequently used, followed by the Trail Making Test, California Verbal Learning Test, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Respondents also reviewed a vignette about a traumatic brain injury patient, and then reported the instruments they would use to assess this patient's specific cognitive symptomatology, general cognitive ability, and capacity to return to work. Particular attention was paid to the areas of memory, attention, and executive functioning. The current study represents the largest and most comprehensive test usage survey conducted to date within the field of clinical neuropsychology. Survey results update and greatly expand knowledge about neuropsychologists' assessment practices. Following a review of findings, results are compared to those obtained in prior surveys and implications for the field of neuropsychology are discussed.
Depressive symptoms are frequently observed in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, little is known regarding the cognitive characteristics of this important subgroup.
We examined executive functions (controlled inhibition) and verbal episodic memory in 33 healthy older adults (control group), 18 older adults with amnestic MCI plus subclinical depressive symptoms (a-MCI/D+ group), and 26 older adults with amnestic MCI but no depressive symptoms (a-MCI group).
Compared to the a-MCI and control groups, patients with a-MCI/D+ showed poor controlled inhibition. Moreover, in verbal episodic memory these patients recalled fewer words than control participants on immediate free, delayed free, and delayed total (free plus cued) recall. Performance on immediate recall suggested a self-retrieval deficit, but delayed performance also revealed the existence of an encoding impairment. In the a-MCI group, participants exhibited normal performance on the executive task, but pervasive memory impairment; the memory deficit concerned free and total recall on both immediate and delayed tasks, suggesting the existence of encoding and self-retrieval disturbances.
This study reveals differences between the pattern of cognitive impairment for a-MCI/D+ and a-MCI subgroups particularly at the level of executive capacities. In terms of memory functioning, the differences between the subgroups were more subtle; more studies are needed in order to better characterize the memory impairment of a-MCI/D+ and a-MCI patients.
Within occupational therapy, it is assumed that individuals are satisfied when participating in everyday occupations that they want to do. However, there is little empirical evidence to show this.
The aim of this study is to explore and describe the relation between satisfaction and participation in everyday occupations in a Swedish cohort, 5 years post stroke.
Sixty-nine persons responded to the Occupational Gaps Questionnaire (OGQ). The questionnaire measures subjective restrictions in participation, i.e. the discrepancy between doing and wanting to do 30 different occupations in everyday life, and satisfaction per activity. Results were analysed with McNemar/chi-square.
Seventy percent of the persons perceived participation restrictions. Individuals that did not perceive restrictions in their participation had a significantly higher level of satisfaction (p?=?.002) compared to those that had restrictions. Participants that performed activities that they wanted to do report between 79 and 100% satisfaction per activity.
In this cohort, there was a significant association between satisfaction and participating in everyday occupations one wants to do, showing that satisfaction is an important aspect of participation and substantiates a basic assumption within occupational therapy. The complexity of measuring satisfaction and participation in everyday occupations is discussed.