Acquired disorders of writing in the Russian language have been reported for more than a century. The study of these disorders reflects the history of Russian neuropsychology and is dominated by the syndrome approach most notably by the writings of Luria. Indeed, our understanding of acquired dysgraphia in Russian speakers is conceptualized according to the classical approach in Modern Russia. In this review, we describe the classical approach and compare it to the cognitive neuropsychological models of writing disorders that are developed to explain dysgraphia in English and in other Western European languages. We argue that the basic theoretical assumptions of the two approaches - cognitive and classical or syndrome approach - share similarities. It is therefore proposed that identification of acquired cases of dysgraphia in Russian could potentially benefit from taking the cognitive neuropsychological perspective. We also conclude that adopting elements of the syndrome approach would substantially enrich the understanding of acquired dysgraphia since these offer an insight into processes not described in the cognitive neuropsychological approach.
Heart rate variability and school readiness by Kern-Jerasick test were determined in mono- and bilingual children. Bilinguals in the beginning of school year had better adaptational reserve than monolingual fellows. High school readiness correlates with higher adaptational reserve determined by PARS. CONCLUSION: Timely adequate preparation to school is necessary to provide easier adaptation and reduction of stress to physiological norm.
Research has not provided feasible models to identify dementia in primary care. We construct a broadly based diagnostic algorithm synthesizing information from known risk factors, such as poor cognition, sociodemographic factors, and health history. Data were from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) Phase I. Dementia was diagnosed by clinical consensus. All subjects had a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and a Modified MMSE (3MS) score. Multiple logistic regression was used to build our diagnostic algorithm, which was then tested for classification accuracy on the basis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for our diagnostic algorithm using 3MS as a binary variable was significantly greater than the 3MS alone (P
Past findings of an impact of cognitive impairment on awareness of olfactory dysfunction, and high prevalence of age-associated cognitive impairment motivated the present study of whether middle-aged and elderly adults are unaware of an olfactory dysfunction despite being carefully screened for cognitive impairment.
The sample included 203 Norwegian participants, aged 46-79 years, 134 women and 69 men, who underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment for screening of cognitive impairment. Subjective assessment of olfactory function ("How would you estimate your sense of smell?") was compared with outcome on objective assessment of olfactory function with the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test, which in the present study was shown to be valid for use on Norwegian populations.
We found that 79% of this cognitively healthy sample with objectively assessed olfactory dysfunction reported normal olfactory function (57% of functionally anosmics reported normal function). In contrast, only 9% with objectively assessed normal olfactory function reported olfactory dysfunction.
A large proportion of cognitively well-functioning middle-aged and elderly adults with an olfactory dysfunction are unaware of their dysfunction. The ENT physician who suspects that the sense of smell may be compromised should, in addition to an anamnesis, assess the patient`s olfactory function objectively.
The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.
The aim of this study was to examine possible exposure-related symptoms and neuropsychological changes among tunnel workers previously exposed to grout containing acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide.
In a cross sectional study, 44 male tunnel workers previously exposed to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide during grouting operations were exam-in-ed with neuropsychological tests, 2-10 years after last exposure. The control group consisted of 49 male tunnel workers with no history of acrylamide exposure. Questionnaires were used to assess retrospectively recalled symptoms during work and current symptoms at the time of the examination.
The prevalence of paresthesia in hands and legs, and leg cramps during work peri-ods were higher in the exposed than control group. Self-reported prevalence of skin irritation, peeling of skin on the hands, white-finger attacks, headache, and breathlessness was also higher among the exposed workers. The Q-16 questionnaire on current symptoms indicated higher symptom prevalence among the exposed of impaired memory and concentration, emotional change, sleep disturbances, tiredness, headache, and sensory or motor changes. In contrast, no association was found between neuropsychological test results and acrylamide exposure, adjusting for relevant confounders. However, selected motor symptoms were associated with the corresponding results on tests for motor function.
Despite higher prevalences of self-reported current symptoms among the acrylamide-exposed compared to the control group, we did not find an association between occupational acrylamide exposure and health out-comes as measured by the chosen neuropsychological tests. Observed associations between chemical exposure and self-reported symptoms should be interpreted with great caution.
Remediation of some incompetent physicians has proven difficult or impossible. The authors sought to determine whether physicians with impaired competency had neuropsychological impairment sufficient to explain their incompetence and their failure to improve with remedial continuing medical education (CME).
During a one-year period, 1996-97, all 27 participants in the Physician Review Program (PREP) conducted at McMaster University, a physician competency assessment program, undertook a detailed neuropsychological screening battery.
Nearly all physicians assessed as competent also performed well on the neuropsychological testing. However, a significant number (about one third) of the physicians who performed poorly on the competency assessment had neuropsychological impairments sufficient to explain their poor performances. The difficulties were more marked in elderly physicians.
A significant minority of incompetent physicians have cognitive impairments sufficient to explain both their incompetence and, probably, their failure to improve with remedial CME. Testing physicians for these impairments is important: to detect and treat reversible conditions, to manage irreversible conditions that preclude successful educational intervention, and to facilitate compensation in this instance. Serious consideration should be given to the incorporation of neuropsychological screening in all intensive physician review programs.