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Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project. Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15434
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1860-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-2001
Author
R W Atkinson
H R Anderson
J. Sunyer
J. Ayres
M. Baccini
J M Vonk
A. Boumghar
F. Forastiere
B. Forsberg
G. Touloumi
J. Schwartz
K. Katsouyanni
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom. atkinson@sghms.ac.uk
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1860-6
Date
Nov-15-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Emergencies
England - epidemiology
France - epidemiology
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Italy - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Netherlands - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Particle Size
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data - trends
Population Surveillance
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - etiology
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasons
Spain - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data - trends
Weather
Abstract
The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.
PubMed ID
11734437 View in PubMed
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The ADDITION study: proposed trial of the cost-effectiveness of an intensive multifactorial intervention on morbidity and mortality among people with Type 2 diabetes detected by screening.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47804
Source
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Sep;24 Suppl 3:S6-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2000
Author
T. Lauritzen
S. Griffin
K. Borch-Johnsen
N J Wareham
B H Wolffenbuttel
G. Rutten
Author Affiliation
Department of General Practice, University of Aarhus, Denmark.
Source
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Sep;24 Suppl 3:S6-11
Date
Sep-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Blood Glucose - analysis
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - diagnosis - economics - epidemiology - therapy
England - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Hyperglycemia - complications - economics - therapy
Intervention Studies
Male
Mass Screening - economics
Middle Aged
Multicenter Studies
Netherlands - epidemiology
Practice Guidelines
Prevalence
Primary Health Care - economics
Randomized Controlled Trials - methods
Risk factors
Vascular Diseases - etiology - mortality - therapy
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The overall aims of the ADDITION study are to evaluate whether screening for prevalent undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes is feasible, and whether subsequent optimised intensive treatment of diabetes, and associated risk factors, is feasible and beneficial. DESIGN: Population-based screening in three European countries followed by an open, randomised controlled trial. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: People aged 40-69 y in the community, without known diabetes, will be offered a random capillary blood glucose screening test by their primary care physicians, followed, if equal to or greater than 5.5 mmol/l, by fasting and 2-h post-glucose-challenge blood glucose measurements. Three thousand newly diagnosed patients will subsequently receive conventional treatment (according to current national guidelines) or intensive multifactorial treatment (lifestyle advice, prescription of aspirin and ACE-inhibitors, in addition to protocol-driven tight control of blood glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol). Patients allocated to intensive treatment will be further randomised to centre-specific interventions to motivate adherence to lifestyle changes and medication. Duration of follow-up is planned for 5 y. Endpoints will include mortality, macrovascular and microvascular complications, patient health status and satisfaction, process-of-care indicators and costs.
PubMed ID
11063279 View in PubMed
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The AdHOC Study of older adults' adherence to medication in 11 countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171755
Source
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005 Dec;13(12):1067-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2005
Author
Claudia Cooper
Iain Carpenter
Cornelius Katona
Marianne Schroll
Cordula Wagner
Daniela Fialova
Gill Livingston
Author Affiliation
Camden and Islington Mental Health and Social Care Trust, Dept. of Mental Health Sciences, University College London, Archway Campus, Holborn Union Building, Highgate Hill, London N19 5NL, UK.
Source
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005 Dec;13(12):1067-76
Date
Dec-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Czech Republic - epidemiology
Demography
Drug Therapy - statistics & numerical data
England - epidemiology
Female
France - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Humans
Italy - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
Netherlands - epidemiology
Patient Compliance - statistics & numerical data
Scandinavia - epidemiology
Abstract
Authors investigated, cross-nationally, the factors, including demographic, psychiatric (including cognitive), physical, and behavioral, determining whether older people take their prescribed medication. Older adults are prescribed more medication than any other group, and poor adherence is a common reason for non-response to medication.
Researchers interviewed 3,881 people over age 65 who receive home care services in 11 countries, administering a structured interview in participants' homes. The main outcome measure was the percentage of participants not adherent to medication.
In all, 12.5% of people (N=456) reported that they were not fully adherent to medication. Non-adherence was predicted by problem drinking (OR=3.6), not having a doctor review their medication (OR=3.3), greater cognitive impairment (OR=1.4 for every one-point increase in impairment), good physical health (OR=1.2), resisting care (OR=2.1), being unmarried (OR=2.3), and living in the Czech Republic (OR=4.7) or Germany (OR=1.4).
People who screen positive for problem drinking and who have dementia (often undiagnosed) are less likely to adhere to medication. Therefore, doctors should consider dementia and problem drinking when prescribing for older adults. Interventions to improve adherence in older adults might be more effective if targeted at these groups. It is possible that medication-review enhances adherence by improving the doctor-patient relationship or by emphasizing the need for medications.
PubMed ID
16319299 View in PubMed
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Admission Hyperglycemia and Clinical Outcome in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273503
Source
Stroke. 2016 Feb;47(2):390-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Susanna M Zuurbier
Sini Hiltunen
Turgut Tatlisumak
Guusje M Peters
Suzanne M Silvis
Elena Haapaniemi
Nyika D Kruyt
Jukka Putaala
Jonathan M Coutinho
Source
Stroke. 2016 Feb;47(2):390-6
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anticoagulants - therapeutic use
Cerebral Hemorrhage - epidemiology - therapy
Cohort Studies
Coma - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Decompressive Craniectomy
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Hyperglycemia - drug therapy - epidemiology
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Insulin - therapeutic use
Intensive Care Units - utilization
Intracranial Thrombosis - epidemiology - mortality - therapy
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Netherlands - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Prognosis
Retrospective Studies
Severity of Illness Index
Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial - epidemiology - mortality - therapy
Venous Thrombosis - epidemiology - mortality - therapy
Abstract
Admission hyperglycemia is associated with poor clinical outcome in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Admission hyperglycemia has not been investigated in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis.
Consecutive adult patients with cerebral venous thrombosis were included at the Academic Medical Center, The Netherlands (2000-2014) and the Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (1998-2014). We excluded patients with known diabetes mellitus and patients without known admission blood glucose. We defined admission hyperglycemia as blood glucose =7.8 mmol/L (141 mg/dL) and severe hyperglycemia as blood glucose =11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL). We used logistic regression analysis to determine if admission hyperglycemia was associated with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 3 to 6 or mortality at last follow-up. We adjusted for: age, sex, coma, malignancy, infection, intracerebral hemorrhage, deep cerebral venous thrombosis, and location of recruitment.
Of 380 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis, 308 were eligible. Of these, 66 (21.4%) had admission hyperglycemia with 8 (2.6%) having severe admission hyperglycemia. Coma (31.3% versus 5.0%, P
PubMed ID
26670083 View in PubMed
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Advantages and disadvantages of an objective selection process for early intervention in employees at risk for sickness absence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature77830
Source
BMC Public Health. 2007;7:67
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Duijts Saskia F A
Kant Ijmert
Swaen Gerard M H
Author Affiliation
Maastricht University, Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht, The Netherlands. sfa.duijts@epid.unimaas.nl
Source
BMC Public Health. 2007;7:67
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Netherlands - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Occupational Health Services
Patient Selection
Preventive Health Services
Randomized Controlled Trials - methods
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Selection Bias
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: It is unclear if objective selection of employees, for an intervention to prevent sickness absence, is more effective than subjective 'personal enlistment'. We hypothesize that objectively selected employees are 'at risk' for sickness absence and eligible to participate in the intervention program. METHODS: The dispatch of 8603 screening instruments forms the starting point of the objective selection process. Different stages of this process, throughout which employees either dropped out or were excluded, were described and compared with the subjective selection process. Characteristics of ineligible and ultimately selected employees, for a randomized trial, were described and quantified using sickness absence data. RESULTS: Overall response rate on the screening instrument was 42.0%. Response bias was found for the parameters sex and age, but not for sickness absence. Sickness absence was higher in the 'at risk' (N = 212) group (42%) compared to the 'not at risk' (N = 2503) group (25%) (OR 2.17 CI 1.63-2.89; p = 0.000). The selection process ended with the successful inclusion of 151 eligible, i.e. 2% of the approached employees in the trial. CONCLUSION: The study shows that objective selection of employees for early intervention is effective. Despite methodological and practical problems, selected employees are actually those at risk for sickness absence, who will probably benefit more from the intervention program than others.
PubMed ID
17474980 View in PubMed
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All cause mortality and its determinants in middle aged men in Finland, The Netherlands, and Italy in a 25 year follow up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature226215
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1991 Jun;45(2):125-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1991
Author
A. Menotti
A. Keys
D. Kromhout
A. Nissinen
H. Blackburn
F. Fidanza
S. Giampaoli
M. Karvonen
J. Pekkanen
S. Punsar
Author Affiliation
Laboratory of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Istituto Superiore di Sanitá, Viale Regina Elena, Rome, Italy.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1991 Jun;45(2):125-30
Date
Jun-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Italy - epidemiology
Life expectancy
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Multivariate Analysis
Netherlands - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
The aims were (1) to compare all cause mortality in population samples of different cultures; and (2) to cross predict fatal event by risk functions involving risk factors usually measured in cardiovascular epidemiology.
The study was a 25 year prospective cohort study. The prediction of all cause mortality was made using the multiple logistic equation as a function of 12 risk factors; the prediction of months lived after entry examination was made by the multiple linear regression using the same factors. POPULATION SAMPLES: There were five cohorts of men aged 40-59 years, from Finland (two cohorts, 1677 men), from The Netherlands (one cohort, 878 men), and from Italy (two cohorts, 1712 men).
The Finnish cohorts came from geographically defined rural areas, the Dutch cohort from a small town in central Holland, and the Italian cohorts from rural villages in northern and central Italy.
All cause mortality was highest in Finland (557 per 1000), and lower in The Netherlands (477) and in Italy (475). The solutions of the multiple logistic function showed the significant and almost universal predictive role of certain factors, with rare exceptions. These were age, blood pressure, cigarette smoking, and arm circumference (the latter with a negative relationship). Similar results were obtained when solving a multiple linear regression equation predicting the number of months lived after entry examination as a function of the same factors. The prediction of fatal events in each country, using the risk functions of the others, produced limited errors, the smallest one being -2% and the largest +11%. When solving the logistic model in the pool of all the cohorts with the addition of dummy variables for the identification of nationality, it also appeared that only a small part of the mortality differences between countries is not explained by 12 available risk factors.
A small set of risk factors seems to explain the intercohort differences of 25 year all cause mortality in population samples of three rather different cultures.
Notes
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PubMed ID
2072071 View in PubMed
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Allometric scaling of brain regions to intra-cranial volume: An epidemiological MRI study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289829
Source
Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 01; 38(1):151-164
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
Date
01-2017
Author
Laura W de Jong
Jean-Sébastien Vidal
Lars E Forsberg
Alex P Zijdenbos
Thaddeus Haight
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
Vilmundur Gudnason
Mark A van Buchem
Lenore J Launer
Author Affiliation
Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Source
Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 01; 38(1):151-164
Date
01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging
Algorithms
Alzheimer Disease - diagnostic imaging - epidemiology
Brain - diagnostic imaging - pathology
Brain Mapping
Community Health Planning
Coronary Artery Disease - diagnostic imaging - epidemiology - pathology
Female
Humans
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Netherlands - epidemiology
Reproducibility of Results
Sex Factors
Abstract
There is growing evidence that sub-structures of the brain scale allometrically to total brain size, that is, in a non-proportional and non-linear way. Here, scaling of different volumes of interest (VOI) to intra-cranial volume (ICV) was examined. It was assessed whether scaling was allometric or isometric and whether scaling coefficients significantly differed from each other. We also tested to what extent allometric scaling of VOI was introduced by the automated segmentation technique. Furthermore, reproducibility of allometric scaling was studied different age groups and study populations. Study samples included samples of cognitively healthy adults from the community-based Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES-Reykjavik Study) (N?=?3,883), the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA) (N =709), and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) (N?=?180). Data encompassed participants with different age, ethnicity, risk factor profile, and ICV and VOI obtained with different automated MRI segmentation techniques. Our analysis showed that (1) allometric scaling is a trait of all parts of the brain, (2) scaling of neo-cortical white matter, neo-cortical gray matter, and deep gray matter structures including the cerebellum are significantly different from each other, and (3) allometric scaling of brain structures cannot solely be explained by age-associated atrophy, sex, ethnicity, or a systematic bias from study-specific segmentation algorithm, but appears to be a true feature of brain geometry. Hum Brain Mapp 38:151-164, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27557999 View in PubMed
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An evaluation of genetic heterogeneity in 145 breast-ovarian cancer families. Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature23409
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Jan;56(1):254-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1995
Author
S A Narod
D. Ford
P. Devilee
R B Barkardottir
H T Lynch
S A Smith
B A Ponder
B L Weber
J E Garber
J M Birch
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Jan;56(1):254-64
Date
Jan-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
BRCA1 Protein
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - genetics
Breast Neoplasms, Male - epidemiology - genetics
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17
Female
Genetic Heterogeneity
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Lod Score
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Proteins - genetics
Neoplasms, Multiple Primary - epidemiology - genetics
Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary - epidemiology - genetics
Netherlands - epidemiology
Ovarian Neoplasms - epidemiology - genetics
Pedigree
Transcription Factors - genetics
Abstract
The breast-ovary cancer-family syndrome is a dominant predisposition to cancer of the breast and ovaries which has been mapped to chromosome region 17q12-q21. The majority, but not all, of breast-ovary cancer families show linkage to this susceptibility locus, designated BRCA1. We report here the results of a linkage analysis of 145 families with both breast and ovarian cancer. These families contain either a total of three or more cases of early-onset (before age 60 years) breast cancer or ovarian cancer. All families contained at least one case of ovarian cancer. Overall, an estimated 76% of the 145 families are linked to the BRCA1 locus. None of the 13 families with cases of male breast cancer appear to be linked, but it is estimated that 92% (95% confidence interval 76%-100%) of families with no male breast cancer and with two or more ovarian cancers are linked to BRCA1. These data suggest that the breast-ovarian cancer-family syndrome is genetically heterogeneous. However, the large majority of families with early-onset breast cancer and with two or more cases of ovarian cancer are likely to be due to BRCA1 mutations.
PubMed ID
7825586 View in PubMed
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An international study of hospital readmissions and related utilization in Europe and the USA.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature189481
Source
Health Policy. 2002 Sep;61(3):269-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2002
Author
Gert P Westert
Ronald J Lagoe
Ilmo Keskimäki
Alastair Leyland
Mark Murphy
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, RIVM (CZO), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. gert.westert@rivm.nl
Source
Health Policy. 2002 Sep;61(3):269-78
Date
Sep-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip - utilization
Asthma - epidemiology - therapy
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology - therapy
Diagnosis-Related Groups - classification
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Services Research
Heart Failure - epidemiology - therapy
Humans
Length of Stay - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Netherlands - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care) - methods
Patient Readmission - statistics & numerical data - trends
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - therapy
Quality Indicators, Health Care
Scotland - epidemiology
Stroke - epidemiology - therapy
United States - epidemiology
Utilization Review
Abstract
This study concerns a comparative analysis of hospital readmission rates and related utilization in six areas, including three European countries (Finland, Scotland and the Netherlands) and three states in the USA (New York, California, Washington State). It includes a data analysis on six major causes of hospitalization across these areas. Its main focus is on two questions. (1) Do hospital readmission rates vary among the causes of hospitalization and the study populations? (2) Are hospital inpatient lengths of stay inversely related to readmissions rates? The study demonstrated that diagnoses such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and congestive heart failure (CHF) were the major causes of hospital readmission rates. The data showed that (initial) hospital stays were generally longer for patients who were readmitted than for those who were not. As a result, short stays were not associated with a higher risk of readmission, meaning that hospital readmissions were not produced by premature hospital discharges in the study population. Furthermore, the spatial variation in readmission rates within 7 versus 8-30 days showed to be identical. Finally, it was found that countries or states with relatively shorter stays showed higher readmission rates and vice versa. Since patients with readmissions in all of the areas had on average longer initial stays, this finding at country level does illustrate that there seems to be a country specific trade off between length of stay and rate of readmission. An explanation should be sought in differences in health care arrangements per area, including factors that determine length of stay levels and readmission rates in individual countries (e.g. managed care penetration, after care by GP's or home care).
PubMed ID
12098520 View in PubMed
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Antibodies to 'second colloid antigen.' A study on the prevalence in sporadic forms of congenital hypothyroidism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature229872
Source
Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1989 Nov;121(5):659-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1989
Author
P. van Trotsenburg
T. Vulsma
A M Bloot
R D Van der Gaag
J W Lens
H A Drexhage
J J de Vijlder
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, Free University Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Source
Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1989 Nov;121(5):659-65
Date
Nov-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antibodies - analysis
Autoantibodies - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Congenital Hypothyroidism
Female
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Humans
Hypothyroidism - epidemiology - immunology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Netherlands - epidemiology
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Thyroglobulin - immunology
Thyroiditis, Subacute - immunology
Abstract
Antibodies against the so called 'second colloid antigen' (CA2 antibodies) occurred in 51% of the mothers of hypothyroid children detected by screening for neonatal congenital hypothyroidism in Quebec (N = 49) and in The Netherlands (N = 26). In The Netherlands where corresponding neonatal serum was available, 31% (8 of 26) of the infants with congenital hypothyroidism were positive for antibodies against the second colloid antigen. When during follow-up, 3 to 5 years after diagnosis, the mothers and their children were investigated, 46% (7 of 15) of the mothers were positive for antibodies against the second colloid antigen, whereas 29% (4 of 14) of the hypothyroid children were also positive. Various control groups did not show more than a 12% positivity. This presence of thyroid-reactive antibodies in a proportion of the hypothyroid children 3 to 5 years after diagnosis is not compatible with a mere transplacental passage; it indicates that the antibodies must be produced by the mothers and by the children themselves. We conclude that a thyroid autoimmune response occurs in a considerable part of infants with congenital hypothyroidism and their mothers and that this immune response seems to persist in both of them for years.
PubMed ID
2686328 View in PubMed
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313 records – page 1 of 32.