The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident happened on April 26, 1986. We investigated the cause of the striking increase in frequency of thyroid cancer in children who lived within a 150 km radius of Chernobyl and who were born before and after the accident. No thyroid cancer was seen in 9472 children born in 1987-89, whereas one and 31 thyroid cancers were recorded in 2409 children born April 27, 1986, to Dec 31, 1986, and 9720 born Jan 1, 1983, to April 26, 1986, respectively. Short-lived radioactive fallout caused by the Chernobyl accident probably induced thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl.
Health effects as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant occurred in 1986 are considered in the paper. Wrong prognosis of the health effects with respect to mortality and morbidity among the population exposed to low radiation doses is shown. Proven increase in thyroid cancer cases among people who were children aged from 0 to 18 at the time of the accident is shown. Linear relationship between thyroid cancer cases and dose to thyroid ranged from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy is considered. An additional absolute risk of thyroid cancer in children varies in the range 1.9-2.6 cases per 10(4) person-year Gy. During the fifteen years following the accident no cases of acute and chronic radiation sickness have been revealed because the population living in contaminated areas received low radiation doses. Also, exposures to low radiation doses did not result in excess of malignant tumors among population. In some cases the outcomes of acute radiation sickness were as follows: radiation damages to the skin, cancer cataracts, development of oncopathology.
Cardiac neoplasms are rare and the vast majority are metastatic in origin. Symptoms of cardiac neoplasms (primary or metastatic) usually appear late in the course of the disease and are often ignored because of the more severe effects of the primary malignant disorder or its therapy. Consequently, cardiac neoplasms, especially metastatic ones, are often not discovered until autopsy.
To assess the incidence of cardiac neoplasms at autopsy and to determine the sites of origins of metastatic cardiac neoplasms.
The pathology records from consecutive autopsies performed at the University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, from January 1973 to May 2004 were reviewed. They showed 266 cases of neoplasms involving the heart among 11,432 consecutive autopsies. These cases were then categorized based on their system of origin and further subclassified into specific primary site categories. As well, the type of cardiac tissue affected was noted in 193 cases (72.6%).
The 266 autopsy cases involving cardiac neoplasms represented 2.33% of the total number of autopsies. Among the 266 cases, two neoplasms were primaries, while 264 were metastatic in origin. Metastatic cardiac neoplasms most frequently metastasized from the respiratory system, followed (in order of decreasing frequency) by the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, breast and genitourinary systems. A minority of metastatic cardiac neoplasms were found to have spread from other systems. Cardiac neoplasms most frequently involved the pericardium, followed (in order of decreasing frequency) by the myocardium, epicardium and endocardium.
There were 132 times more metastatic cardiac neoplasms than primary cardiac neoplasms found in the present study. The most common sites of metastatic origin were the lungs, bone marrow (leukemia/multiple myeloma), breasts and lymph nodes (lymphoma). Leukemias were more prevalent in the present study than in previous studies. The pericardium was the tissue that was most frequently affected by metastatic cardiac neoplasms.
Comment In: Can J Cardiol. 2006 Jan;22(1):8016511961
We describe the 40-year weight history and adult morbidity and mortality in a cohort of 504 overweight children, aged 2 months to 16 years, who were admitted for investigation of their overweight to four children's hospitals in Stockholm between 1921 and 1947. Follow-up information was gathered by questionnaire at 10-year intervals, most recently in 1980-1983 (n = 458), on weight history (based on the body mass index (BMI = kg/m2)), as well as prevalence of cardiovascular disease (n = 143), diabetes (n = 39), and cancer (all types (n = 20)), reported during the 40 years of follow-up, and mortality from all causes (n = 55), determined from death certificate. The sample of overweight children remained overweight as adults; after age 55 years, the BMI began to decline for both genders. Female subjects were heavier than their male counterparts from postpuberty onward. Subjects who died by the 40-year follow-up and those reporting cardiovascular disease were significantly (P
The Chernobyl accident resulted in a number of cases of thyroid cancer in females under the age of 20 y. Many of these individuals were treated with surgical removal of the thyroid gland followed by 131I ablation of residual thyroid tissue. Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates that 131I treatment for thyroid cancer or hyperthyroidism in adult women confers negligible risk of breast cancer. However, comparable data for younger women do not exist. Studies of external radiation exposure indicate that, for radiation exposures of as low as 0.2-0.7 Gy, the risk of breast cancer is greater for infant and adolescent female breast tissues than for adult female breast tissues. METHODS: The effective half-time of 131I measured in athyrotic patients was used together with the OLINDA/EXM computer code to estimate doses to breast tissue in 10-y-old, 15-y-old, and young adult females from ablation treatment. RESULTS: The dose to pediatric and young adult female breast tissue associated with a 5.6-GBq (150 mCi) ablation treatment may range from 0.35 to 0.55 Gy, resulting in a lifetime risk of breast cancer ranging from 2-4 cases per 100 such individuals exposed and a lifetime risk of solid tumors ranging from 8 to 17 solid tumors per 100 such individuals exposed. Administration of multiple ablation treatments, as often occurs with metastases, could result in doses ranging from 0.7 to 1 Gy, with corresponding increases in the lifetime cancer risk. CONCLUSION: These estimates suggest the need for additional research and a possible need for surveillance of young Chernobyl thyroid cancer patients who received 131I ablation treatment.
There is a large amount of evidence that the ABO blood group system may play a role in disease etiology. A relationship between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and cancer risk has been demonstrated in a number of studies. However, in relation to gynecological malignancies, these findings are inconsistent and contradictory.
To perform a case-control study for analysis of the distribution of ABO and Rh blood antigens among women from South-East Siberia who suffered from ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer, and to assess the potential role of these antigens in carcinogenesis.
A total of 1,163 cases with ovarian cancer (n=551), endometrial cancer (n=440) and cervical cancer (n=172) were involved in the study. The control group was formed from 22,581 female blood donors. Blood groups were determined through patients medical records and blood donor records. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The blood group O was defined as the referent group, as it has the greatest frequency in the populations of Southern Siberia. P values less than 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.
We found that carriage of non-O blood types increased the risk of ovarian cancer by 40-60%, and the magnitude of this relationship was strongest in women with the AB (IV) blood group. Carriage of the A (II) blood group strongly correlated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer in premenopausal, but not in postmenopausal women. No statistically significant correlations were obtained for endometrial cancer and cervical cancer. Additionally, we did not observe a relationship between Rhesus factor and cancer risk.
We suggest that carriage of non-O blood groups may elevate risk of ovarian cancer and can play a role in its development.
It has been suggested that abortions leave the breast epithelium in a proliferative state with an increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Results from previous studies of induced or spontaneous abortions and risk of subsequent breast cancer are contradictory, probably due to methodological considerations. We investigated the relationship between abortions and subsequent breast cancer risk in a case-control study using prospectively recorded exposure information. The study population comprised women recorded in the population-based Swedish Medical Birth Register between 1973-91. Cases were defined by linkage of the birth register to the Swedish Cancer Register and controls were randomly selected from the birth register. From the subjects' antenatal care records we abstracted prospectively collected information on induced and spontaneous abortions, as well as a number of potential confounding factors. Relative risk of breast cancer was estimated by odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A reduced risk of breast cancer was observed for women with a history of at least 1 compared to no abortions (adjusted OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.72-0.99). The adjusted OR decreases step-wise with number of abortions to 0.59 (95% CI = 0.34-1.03) for 3 or more compared to no abortions. The patterns are similar for induced and spontaneous abortions. In conclusion, neither a history of induced nor spontaneous abortions is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Our data suggest a protective effect of pregnancies regardless of outcome.
Comment In: Int J Cancer. 2004 May 10;109(6):945-6; author reply 947-815027130