Associations between larger size at birth and increased rates of adult cancer have been proposed but few empirical studies have examined this hypothesis. We investigated overall and site-specific cancer incidence in relation to birth characteristics in a Swedish population-based cohort of 11,166 singletons born in 1915-1929 for whom we have detailed obstetric data and who were alive in 1960. A total of 2,685 first primary cancers were registered during follow-up from 1960 to 2001. A standard deviation (SD) increase in birth weight for gestational age (GA) was associated with (sex-adjusted) increases of 13% (95% CI = 0.03-0.23) in the rates of digestive cancers and of 17% (95% CI = 0.01-0.35) in the rates of lymphatic cancers. Women who had higher birth weights also had increased rates of breast cancer under age 50 years (by 39% per SD increase; 95% CI = 0.09-0.79), but reduced rates (by 24%; 95% CI = 0.07-0.38) of endometrial (corpus uteri) cancer at all ages. There was no evidence of associations with other cancer sites. For overall cancer incidence, men had an 8% increased risk at all ages per SD increase in birth weight for GA while women only had an increased risk under age 50 years (mainly driven by the association with breast cancer). These findings provide evidence of a modest association of birth size and adult cancer risk, resulting from positive associations with a few cancer sites and a possible inverse association with endometrial cancer.
This article provides an overview of cancer in Canada in 1984, including an analysis of geographic patterns by province. Trends for selected sites of cancer incidence from 1970 to 1984 and cancer mortality from 1970 to 1987 are also examined. Finally, trends since 1970 in cancer incidence and mortality are examined in the context of strategies for cancer control. Because of the need to assemble cancer information from a variety of sources within each province and territory, several years elapse between cancer diagnosis and the compilation of national figures. Still, the year-to-year analysis of incidence data in this article provides valuable information of cancer trends. In recent years, considerable improvements in Canada's system of cancer registration have led to improved consistency among provinces for both age-standardized rates and mortality/incidence ratios.
This descriptive epidemiology study reports the cancer incidence and mortality experience of Northeastern Ontario residents during the 8-year period from 1991-1998.
Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs), Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for a number of cancer sites (n = 25 for males, n = 26 for females), using rates determined from the Ontario population as the referent population.
During the period 1991-1998, 24,019 cases of primary incident cancers (excluding non-melanotic skin cancer) and 11,677 deaths attributed to cancer occurred in Northeastern Ontario residents. Several cancer sites were significantly elevated in Northeastern Ontario residents. For example, trachea-bronchus-lung cancer incidence and mortality rates were significantly elevated. Rates were over 20% higher than those for the province of Ontario, for both males and females (SIR = 122, 95% CI = 118-127; SIR = 123, 95% CI = 117-129 for males and females, respectively; SMR = 125, 95% CI = 120-130; SMR = 125, 95% CI = 118-132 for males and females, respectively).
For both males and females, the cancer incidence and mortality experience of residents of Northeastern Ontario were significantly higher than would be expected based on Ontario cancer rates, overall, and for a number of individual sites. While this study does not identify causal associations between risk factors and disease, these data should aid in cancer control planning, and generating hypotheses for further study.
Squamous cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) are related to the use of tobacco and/or alcohol, and in North America they are more common among the poor. They are usually locoregionally confined at diagnosis, and local treatment with surgery and/or radiation therapy is often curative. This study compares the incidence and survival of this group of diseases in Canada and the U.S., two North American neighbors with many cultural similarities but significant differences in their health care and social programs.
To describe and compare the case mix, incidence, and outcome of squamous cancers of the UADT in Ontario, Canada, and the U.S., we used the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries in the U.S. to identify all cases of cancer with International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes 141, 143-9, 160-1, and a subset of 140, which were diagnosed between 1982 and 1994. ICD-O histology codes were placed into clinically relevant groupings, and ICD-9 site codes were grouped into sites as defined by the International Union Against Cancer and the American Joint Committee on Cancer. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for each site. For the SEER registry, race specific incidence rates were also calculated. Observed and expected survival were plotted by site and registry, and from these, relative survival was calculated. Survival was compared during the first 5 years after diagnosis and during the next 5 years among patients who had survived the first 5 years.
Of the 16,577 and 42,990 cases identified in the OCR and SEER registries, respectively, squamous cancer was by far the most common histology (94.1% in OCR, 94.6% in SEER) and will form the main subject of this report. The distribution of squamous cancers by site, subsite, age, and gender were remarkably similar in the two populations. Overall, the incidence was about 17% higher in the U.S. than in Ontario, and this difference was seen for all sites except the nasopharynx, which was more common in Ontario. The higher incidence in the U.S. in part reflects the much higher rate for African Americans than for Americans of other ethnic backgrounds. During the first 5 years after diagnosis, when most deaths from UADT cancer occur, there was a significant relative survival difference in favor of the U.S. for cancer of the supraglottis, and in favor of Ontario for cancer of the oral cavity. There was a nonsignificant trend in favor of Ontario for cancer of the nasopharynx. Within the SEER population, for all sites except the nasopharynx, 5-year relative survival was considerably worse for African Americans than for Americans of other ethnic backgrounds. Examination of survival beyond 5 years after diagnosis for patients who had survived the first 5 years revealed that for all sites, the observed survival continued to diverge markedly from the expected survival. The excess mortality ranged from less than 20% for glottic and nasopharyngeal cancers to about 30-40% for oropharyngeal and supraglottic cancers.
Despite remarkable similarities in case mix between the two countries, UADT cancers were more frequent in the SEER population of the U.S. than in Ontario, and this was partly attributable to the much higher incidence among African Americans. Significant differences between the registries in 5-year survival were seen for several sites. African Americans with UADT cancers had much worse prognoses than did Americans of other ethnic backgrounds. Patients who survive their UADT cancer remain at a higher-than-expected risk of death even after they have been cured.
Accurate and complete registries are an important source of knowledge about cancer. The concordance of the recording of neoplasms in the Saskatchewan cancer registry with that in hospital charts and death registrations was evaluated for 368 patients. The agreement between registry and hospital charts or death registrations was excellent (kappa: 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.89, 0.97), with 91.3% of those with cancer having the same neoplasm recorded in their chart or death registration as in the registry. There was only one patient whose hospital chart indicated cancer who was not in the registry and one apparent major discrepancy relating to the cancer site, which was due to the recording of the primary site in the registry and a secondary in the hospital chart. Although based on a relatively small number of patients, these results suggest a high degree of consistency between cancer registry, hospital charts and death registrations in Saskatchewan.
The nationwide Icelandic Cancer Registry (ICR) was established in 1954 and has been extensively used for research from the outset although formal quality assessment of the registry database has not previously been undertaken. In this paper we report the first formal evaluation of the comparability, validity, timeliness and completeness of the ICR.
Data from the ICR for the period 1955-2009 (41 994 cancer diagnoses) were used, applying established quantitative and semi-quantitative methods. In order to evaluate the completeness of the ICR, record linkage was performed between the ICR and the population-based Hospital Discharge Registry to identify potential missing cases for tumour diagnoses in 2000 and 2001.
The registration is in accordance with internationally accepted standards. It has high validity, but random variation in rates is prominent in this small population. Record linkage with the Hospital Discharge Registry revealed that in addition to the 2459 cancers registered in 2000-2001, 21 cases were missing, indicating 99.15% completeness. Tumours of the central nervous system constituted 71%, and haematological malignancies 19% of these missing entries.
The ICR has high completeness, validity and timeliness and is comparable to the cancer registries of the other Nordic Countries. As cancer registries have many important roles, it is of great importance that their data are at all times as complete and valid as possible. Thus the ICR aims to constantly improve and update the data gathering process.