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486 records – page 1 of 49.

1,3-Butadiene: exposure estimation, hazard characterization, and exposure-response analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186649
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2003 Jan-Feb;6(1):55-83
Publication Type
Article
Author
K. Hughes
M E Meek
M. Walker
R. Beauchamp
Author Affiliation
Existing Substances Division, Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Environmental Health Centre, Tunney's Pasture PL0802B1, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0L2.
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2003 Jan-Feb;6(1):55-83
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Butadienes - metabolism - toxicity
Canada - epidemiology
Carcinogens, Environmental - toxicity
Environmental Exposure
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Humans
Mutagens - toxicity
Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Abstract
1,3-Butadiene has been assessed as a Priority Substance under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The general population in Canada is exposed to 1,3-butadiene primarily through ambient air. Inhaled 1,3-butadiene is carcinogenic in both mice and rats, inducing tumors at multiple sites at all concentrations tested in all identified studies. In addition, 1,3-butadiene is genotoxic in both somatic and germ cells of rodents. It also induces adverse effects in the reproductive organs of female mice at relatively low concentrations. The greater sensitivity in mice than in rats to induction of these effects by 1,3-butadiene is likely related to species differences in metabolism to active epoxide metabolites. Exposure to 1,3-butadiene in the occupational environment has been associated with the induction of leukemia; there is also some limited evidence that 1,3-butadiene is genotoxic in exposed workers. Therefore, in view of the weight of evidence of available epidemiological and toxicological data, 1,3-butadiene is considered highly likely to be carcinogenic, and likely to be genotoxic, in humans. Estimates of the potency of butadiene to induce cancer have been derived on the basis of both epidemiological investigation and bioassays in mice and rats. Potencies to induce ovarian effects have been estimated on the basis of studies in mice. Uncertainties have been delineated, and, while there are clear species differences in metabolism, estimates of potency to induce effects are considered justifiably conservative in view of the likely variability in metabolism across the population related to genetic polymorphism for enzymes for the critical metabolic pathway.
PubMed ID
12587254 View in PubMed
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A 10-year follow-up of postmenopausal women on long-term continuous combined hormone replacement therapy: Update of safety and quality-of-life findings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80782
Source
J Br Menopause Soc. 2006 Sep;12(3):115-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2006
Author
Heikkinen Jorma
Vaheri Raija
Timonen Ulla
Author Affiliation
The Deaconness Institute of Oulu, Isokatu, Oulu, Finland.
Source
J Br Menopause Soc. 2006 Sep;12(3):115-25
Date
Sep-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breast Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Cerebrovascular Accident - chemically induced - epidemiology
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Endometrial Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Estradiol - administration & dosage - adverse effects - analogs & derivatives
Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Hormone Replacement Therapy - adverse effects - psychology
Humans
Medroxyprogesterone 17-Acetate - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Middle Aged
Postmenopause - drug effects - physiology
Quality of Life
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of continuous combined hormone replacement therapy (ccHRT) with estradiol valerate/medroxyprogesterone acetate (E(2)V/MPA) over nine years and at follow-up one year after discontinuation. Study design: A total of 419 women were randomized to one of four treatments: once-daily 1 mg E2V/2.5 mg MPA (1 + 2.5 group); 1 mg E2V/5 mg MPA daily (1 + 5 group); 2 mg E2V/2.5 mg MPA daily (2 + 2.5 group); 2 mg E2V/5 mg MPA daily (2 + 5 group) (Indivina, Orion Pharma). For the last six months, all received the 1 + 2.5 dosage. The 2 + 2.5 dosage was discontinued at the end of year 7. A total of 198 women continued after year 7. RESULTS: Annualized percentage rates for cardiovascular events [corrected] and endometrial cancers [corrected] were below national rates for Finland and those reported for the Women's Health Initiative. There were no serious events with the 1 + 2.5 dosage or after ccHRT discontinuation. Climacteric symptoms remained significantly below baseline values after dosage reduction; some symptoms recurred after discontinuation of ccHRT. HRQOL ratings improved with ccHRT, irrespective of dosage, including depressed mood, anxiety, health perception and sexual interest. Scores on a scale assessing daily functioning and enjoyment (Q-LES-Q) improved from year 7 to year 9. They deteriorated during follow-up in women not continuing ccHRT. CONCLUSIONS: Lower dosages of HRT were as effective as higher doses in improving climacteric symptoms and HRQOL ratings and had fewer safety concerns. Following discontinuation of ccHRT, patient satisfaction was variable, with 15% electing to continue or restart HRT and 7% resuming at follow-up. This supports the need for an individualized approach to therapy recommendations.
Notes
Erratum In: J Br Menopause Soc. 2006 Dec;12(4):174
PubMed ID
16953985 View in PubMed
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Accumulated state of the Yukon River watershed: part I critical review of literature.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121234
Source
Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2013 Jul;9(3):426-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Monique G Dubé
Breda Muldoon
Julie Wilson
Karonhiakta'tie Bryan Maracle
Author Affiliation
Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick, Alberta, Canada. Dub.mon@hotmail.com
Source
Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2013 Jul;9(3):426-38
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animal Migration
Animals
British Columbia - epidemiology
Climate change
Environment
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Fish Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology - parasitology
Fishes - physiology
Fresh Water - analysis - microbiology - parasitology
Humans
Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Seasons
Water Movements
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Water Quality
Yukon Territory - epidemiology
Abstract
A consistent methodology for assessing the accumulating effects of natural and manmade change on riverine systems has not been developed for a whole host of reasons including a lack of data, disagreement over core elements to consider, and complexity. Accumulated state assessments of aquatic systems is an integral component of watershed cumulative effects assessment. The Yukon River is the largest free flowing river in the world and is the fourth largest drainage basin in North America, draining 855,000 km(2) in Canada and the United States. Because of its remote location, it is considered pristine but little is known about its cumulative state. This review identified 7 "hot spot" areas in the Yukon River Basin including Lake Laberge, Yukon River at Dawson City, the Charley and Yukon River confluence, Porcupine and Yukon River confluence, Yukon River at the Dalton Highway Bridge, Tolovana River near Tolovana, and Tanana River at Fairbanks. Climate change, natural stressors, and anthropogenic stresses have resulted in accumulating changes including measurable levels of contaminants in surface waters and fish tissues, fish and human disease, changes in surface hydrology, as well as shifts in biogeochemical loads. This article is the first integrated accumulated state assessment for the Yukon River basin based on a literature review. It is the first part of a 2-part series. The second article (Dubé et al. 2013a, this issue) is a quantitative accumulated state assessment of the Yukon River Basin where hot spots and hot moments are assessed outside of a "normal" range of variability.
PubMed ID
22927161 View in PubMed
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Acrylamide intake through diet and human cancer risk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92784
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Aug 13;56(15):6013-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-13-2008
Author
Mucci Lorelei A
Wilson Kathryn M
Author Affiliation
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. lmucci@hsph.harvard.edu
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Aug 13;56(15):6013-9
Date
Aug-13-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acrylamide - administration & dosage - analysis - toxicity
Adult
Animals
Body Weight
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Child
Colorectal Neoplasms - epidemiology
Diet
Diet Records
Female
Food analysis
Humans
Kidney Neoplasms - epidemiology
Male
Models, Animal
Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms - epidemiology
Abstract
More than one-third of the calories consumed by U.S. and European populations contain acrylamide, a substance classified as a "probable human carcinogen" based on laboratory data. Thus, it is a public health concern to evaluate whether intake of acrylamide at levels found in the food supply is an important cancer risk factor. Mean dietary intake of acrylamide in adults averages 0.5 microg/kg of body weight per day, whereas intake is higher among children. Several epidemiological studies examining the relationship between dietary intake of acrylamide and cancers of the colon, rectum, kidney, bladder, and breast have been undertaken. These studies found no association between intake of specific foods containing acrylamide and risk of these cancers. Moreover, there was no relationship between estimated acrylamide intake in the diet and cancer risk. Results of this research are compared with other epidemiological studies, and the findings are examined in the context of data from animal models. The importance of epidemiological studies to establish the public health risk associated with acrylamide in food is discussed, as are the limitations and future directions of such studies.
PubMed ID
18624443 View in PubMed
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Active and passive smoking and the risk of stomach cancer, by subsite, in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190831
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2002 Feb;11(1):27-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2002
Author
Y. Mao
J. Hu
R. Semenciw
K. White
Author Affiliation
Surveillance & Risk Assessment, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Population and Public Health Branch, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture AL0601C1, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada. Yang_Mao@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2002 Feb;11(1):27-38
Date
Feb-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Cardia
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Questionnaires
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Stomach Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
This study assessed the influence of active and passive smoking on the risk of stomach cancer by subsite. Mailed questionnaires were used to obtain information on 1171 newly diagnosed histologically confirmed stomach cancer cases and 2207 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in eight Canadian provinces. Data were collected on socio-economic status, lifestyle and passive smoking status. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were derived by logistic regression. Compared with those who had never smoked, there was strongly increased risk for ex- and current smokers among subjects with cardial stomach cancer. For men with cardial cancer, the adjusted ORs were 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0) and 2.6 (95% CI 1.6-4.3) for ex-smokers and current smokers, respectively, with a similar pattern among women. Among men, the adjusted ORs were lower for subsites of stomach cancer other than cardia. These findings suggest that active and passive smoking may play an important role in the development of cardial stomach cancer.
PubMed ID
11917206 View in PubMed
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Agreement of self-reported use of menopausal hormone replacement therapy with physician reports.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202232
Source
Epidemiology. 1999 May;10(3):260-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1999
Author
M G Jain
T E Rohan
G R Howe
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Epidemiology. 1999 May;10(3):260-3
Date
May-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - chemically induced - epidemiology
Adult
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Endometrial Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Estrogen Replacement Therapy - adverse effects - classification - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Medical Records - standards
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Questionnaires - standards
Reproducibility of Results
Time Factors
Abstract
There have been relatively few epidemiological studies to verify the information obtained from study participants on the use of menopausal hormone replacement therapy. We conducted this study as part of a case-control study of diet, hormone use, and endometrial cancer in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1994-1998. We compared records from 653 subjects, 30-79 years of age, with reports from their physicians on ever/never use of hormone replacement therapy and duration, type, and dose of hormone replacement therapy. A total of 88% of the interview records were in agreement with physician reports for ever/never use of hormone replacement therapy. The overall kappa value for ever/never use agreement was 0.76 (range = 0.71-0.81), and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.64 (range = 0.57-0.70) for duration of hormone replacement therapy use, indicating good agreement; similar correlations were seen among cases and controls for overall use, as well as estrogen- or progestogen-alone use. Concordance for brand codes was observed for about 43% of the subjects. This study suggests that information obtained by interview in case-control studies provides a reasonable measure of ever use of hormone replacement therapy and duration of use. Interviews, however, do not represent a reliable source of information on brands and dosage of hormone replacement therapy preparations.
PubMed ID
10230835 View in PubMed
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Agricultural herbicide use and risk of lymphoma and soft-tissue sarcoma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature26300
Source
JAMA. 1986 Sep 5;256(9):1141-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-5-1986
Author
S K Hoar
A. Blair
F F Holmes
C D Boysen
R J Robel
R. Hoover
J F Fraumeni
Source
JAMA. 1986 Sep 5;256(9):1141-7
Date
Sep-5-1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Agricultural Workers' Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Herbicides - adverse effects
Hodgkin Disease - chemically induced - epidemiology
Humans
Insecticides - adverse effects
Kansas
Lymphoma - chemically induced - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk
Sarcoma - chemically induced - epidemiology
Soft Tissue Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
A population-based case-control study of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS), Hodgkin's disease (HD), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in Kansas found farm herbicide use to be associated with NHL (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9, 2.6). Relative risk of NHL increased significantly with number of days of herbicide exposure per year and latency. Men exposed to herbicides more than 20 days per year had a sixfold increased risk of NHL (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 1.9, 19.5) relative to nonfarmers. Frequent users who mixed or applied the herbicides themselves had an OR of 8.0 (95% CI, 2.3, 27.9) for NHL. Excesses were associated with use of phenoxyacetic acid herbicides, specifically 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Neither STS nor HD was associated with pesticide exposure. This study confirms the reports from Sweden and several US states that NHL is associated with farm herbicide use, especially phenoxyacetic acids. It does not confirm the case-control studies or the cohort studies of pesticide manufacturers and Vietnam veterans linking herbicides to STS or HD.
Notes
Erratum In: JAMA 1986 Dec 26;256(24):3351
PubMed ID
3801091 View in PubMed
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[Alarming data on the risk of breast cancer following estrogen replacement therapy should be interpreted carefully]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature16989
Source
Lakartidningen. 2005 Apr 18-24;102(16):1217-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Viveca Odlind
Author Affiliation
Läkemedelsverket, Uppsala. viveca.odlind@mpa.se
Source
Lakartidningen. 2005 Apr 18-24;102(16):1217-8
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breast Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Estrogen Replacement Therapy - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
PubMed ID
15921094 View in PubMed
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Analytical epidemiology of primary liver carcinoma in the Pacific Basin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4243
Source
Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1982;62:123-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1982
Author
K C Lam
M J Tong
Source
Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1982;62:123-7
Date
1982
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aflatoxins - adverse effects
Alaska
Asia, Southeastern
California
China
Female
Hepatitis B - complications
Humans
Liver Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Nitrosamines - adverse effects
Pacific Islands
Abstract
In the Pacific Basin, the hepatitis B virus is closely associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in its geographic distribution and familial clustering, and its presence in liver tissues. The contribution of aflatoxin to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in different regions varies from negligible to probably major. Neither the hepatitis B virus nor aflatoxin can account for the varied epidemiology of hepatocarcinogenesis in the Pacific Basin. Many potential carcinogens for the liver have been identified in food, drugs, industrial chemicals, and in the general environment, but their importance in hepatocarcinogenesis remains to be defined.
PubMed ID
7167173 View in PubMed
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Antenatal drugs affecting vitamin K status of the fetus and the newborn.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature23368
Source
Semin Thromb Hemost. 1995;21(4):364-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
B. Astedt
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
Source
Semin Thromb Hemost. 1995;21(4):364-70
Date
1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Drug-Induced - etiology
Anticoagulants - adverse effects - pharmacokinetics
Anticonvulsants - adverse effects - pharmacokinetics
Blood Coagulation Factors - metabolism
Child
Cohort Studies
Coumarins - adverse effects - pharmacokinetics
Epilepsy - drug therapy
Female
Fetal Diseases - chemically induced
Great Britain - epidemiology
Hemorrhage - chemically induced
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - drug therapy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Protein Processing, Post-Translational
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden - epidemiology
Thrombosis - drug therapy
Vitamin K - adverse effects - physiology - therapeutic use
Vitamin K Deficiency - chemically induced - embryology - prevention & control
Abstract
Coumarin derivatives and anticonvulsants administered during pregnancy enter the fetal circulation, interfering with the action of vitamin K. Vitamin K plays a crucial part in the gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues of the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors prothrombin, FVII, FIX, and FX. Other vitamin K-dependent proteins in the coagulation cascade are protein C and protein S. Vitamin K-dependent bone proteins are osteocalcin and gamma-carboxyglutamate matrix protein. Administration of coumarol derivatives results in under carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent proteins. Anticoagulation therapy with warfarin is followed by an increased risk of embryopathy, which has been shown to be greatest between gestational weeks 6 and 12. Administration of warfarin is also followed by an increased risk both of fetal intraventricular hemorrhage, and of cerebral microbleedings, which may result in microencephaly and mental retardation. Treatment with coumarol derivatives should therefore be avoided during pregnancy, even in pregnant women with artificial heart valves, and replaced by heparin. Hemorrhage in the newborn related to the use of anticonvulsant drugs during pregnancy occurs very early within the first 24 hours, probably due to increased degradation of vitamin K. Transplacental administration of vitamin K has been shown to prevent neonatal hemorrhage induced by maternal anticonvulsant therapy. Prophylactic administration of vitamin K, especially by intramuscular injection, has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer. However, subsequent extensive studies have yielded no evidence of any relationship between prophylactic vitamin K administration and the occurrence of childhood cancer.
PubMed ID
8747699 View in PubMed
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486 records – page 1 of 49.