With increasing interest in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), three staging systems for NETs of the colon and rectum have been published. Their prognostic relevance has not been examined and compared in an independent clinical database.
From the National Cancer Database (NCDB), 5457 patients diagnosed with colorectal neuroendocrine tumor (CRNETs) between 1998 and 2002 were staged according to the staging systems from (1) European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS, 2006; n = 1537); (2) American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC, 2009; n = 1140); and (3) location-specific staging systems from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER, 2008; n = 942). Stage-stratified overall survival (OS) and Cox-specific concordance indices were calculated for each system. Independent prognostic factors were identified by multivariate analysis.
Five-year OS for stage I, II, III, and IV CRNETs as defined by the ENETS staging system were 90.8, 77.3, 53.1, and 14.8 %, respectively. For well-differentiated CRNETs, the 5-year OS for stage I, II, III, and IV as defined by the AJCC staging system were superior: 90.6, 83.9, 64.8, and 24.9 %, respectively. Both staging systems had a concordance index of 0.72. After specifying location in the colon versus rectum, all three systems demonstrated acceptable performance. Histologic grade was a significant independent predictor of OS not currently incorporated in the staging systems.
The three staging systems showed comparable prognostic stratification of CRNETs, while the AJCC and ENETS systems are the most parsimonious. The current analysis supports the use of the AJCC for well-differentiated disease and ENETS systems for all CRNETs until there is further evidence for modification.
The objective was to describe regional variations in M-staging in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer within a Danish county and to compare clinical practice with guideline recommendations.
Data were as captured from 1) a prospective, non-interventional study counting 635 consecutive patients referred for M-staging in the 2008-2009 period at three regional hospitals within one county, and 2) a questionnaire on M-staging practice completed by the five sites performing M-staging in the same county in 2015.
All three sites referred patients for M-staging in 2008, irrespective of their risk factors. Two of the three sites maintained this practice in 2015. Furthermore, in 2015, three of five sites performed M-staging in intermediate and high-risk patients only. Planar whole-body bone scans were standard in all sites in 2008 with single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) being performed if required and if available. In 2015, two sites used choline positron emission tomography/CT for primary staging of high-risk patients against guideline recommendations. The use of SPECT/CT showed wide variations from "if required" to "mandatory" head-to-thigh imaging. There were notable variations between clinical practice and guidelines in 2008, and this was even more evident in 2015.
Considerable variations existed with respect to the M-staging imaging practices in prostate cancer within a single Danish county. The variation was more pronounced in 2015 than in 2008. Clinical practice conflicted in part with European and national Danish guidelines.