The ABCG2 c.421C>A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was determined in 660 healthy Finnish volunteers, of whom 32 participated in a pharmacokinetic crossover study involving the administration of 20 mg atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. The frequency of the c.421A variant allele was 9.5% (95% confidence interval 8.1-11.3%). Subjects with the c.421AA genotype (n = 4) had a 72% larger mean area under the plasma atorvastatin concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) than individuals with the c.421CC genotype had (n = 16; P = 0.049). In participants with the c.421AA genotype, the rosuvastatin AUC(0-infinity) was 100% greater than in those with c.421CA (n = 12) and 144% greater than in those with the c.421CC genotype. Also, those with the c.421AA genotype showed peak plasma rosuvastatin concentrations 108% higher than those in the c.421CA genotype group and 131% higher than those in the c.421CC genotype group (P
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the distal half of chromosome arm 11q is frequent in a variety of human tumors, including breast cancer, and is often associated with poor prognosis. In an ongoing attempt to locate and characterize the main target genes within this chromosome region, we first looked for aberrations in known genes either suggested to be involved in tumorigenesis or shown to suppress tumor formation. We examined 31 primary breast tumors showing LOH in 11q21-24 for mutations in the MRE11A, CHK1, PPP2R1B, and TSLC1 genes. The absence of intragenic alterations related to cancer led us next to evaluate possible gene silencing resulting from promoter region CpG hypermethylation, using the bisulfite sequencing technique. In addition to the four genes mentioned above, we also analyzed the ATM gene, which had been investigated for certain germline mutations in an earlier study. Only the TSLC1 promoter region exhibited aberrant methylation patterns, and altogether 33% (10/30) of the successfully analyzed tumors showed evidence of elevated levels of TSLC1 CpG methylation. Ten percent (3/30) of the tumors showed significantly increased methylation. Thus, as has been shown in lung and some other forms of cancer, hypermethylation of the TSLC1 promoter region is also frequently a second hit along with LOH in breast cancer.
Based on a population-based cohort study, Olsson et al.  found significant evidence for elevated incidence of breast and ovarian cancers among female first-degree relatives of men with breast cancer. Using an extension of logistic regressive models we investigate whether, after allowing for multifactorial familial correlations, single locus segregation could be the cause of the elevated incidence in these families. The logit for a given sib in the class D logistic regressive model depends on the order in which affected sibs occur in a sibship. That makes the model less appropriate for the situation where a polygenic component or a common sibling environment may be present, as well as being computationally cumbersome. In this paper, we propose to use the proportion of siblings in a sibship who are affected to quantify a sibling correlation. That not only relaxes the interchangeability problem but also makes the model computationally efficient. We then use this modified class D logistic regressive model for our segregation analysis. Using the proportion of siblings in a sibship who are affected as a covariate resulted in a significantly higher likelihoods in all the models we investigated. We found evidence for a dominant Mendelian gene leading to early age of onset of breast and/or ovarian cancer. This could either be a germline mutation of BRCA2 or a mutation in a gene different from BRCA2.
The fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene is a candidate tumour suppressor gene in breast and other cancers. We investigated deletions within the FHIT gene in lobular breast cancer and found that 16% of cases showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) within the gene. We compared LOH within FHIT in lobular and ductal breast tumours and found a significant association between LOH at FHIT and the ductal histological type (P
The breast-ovary cancer-family syndrome is a dominant predisposition to cancer of the breast and ovaries which has been mapped to chromosome region 17q12-q21. The majority, but not all, of breast-ovary cancer families show linkage to this susceptibility locus, designated BRCA1. We report here the results of a linkage analysis of 145 families with both breast and ovarian cancer. These families contain either a total of three or more cases of early-onset (before age 60 years) breast cancer or ovarian cancer. All families contained at least one case of ovarian cancer. Overall, an estimated 76% of the 145 families are linked to the BRCA1 locus. None of the 13 families with cases of male breast cancer appear to be linked, but it is estimated that 92% (95% confidence interval 76%-100%) of families with no male breast cancer and with two or more ovarian cancers are linked to BRCA1. These data suggest that the breast-ovarian cancer-family syndrome is genetically heterogeneous. However, the large majority of families with early-onset breast cancer and with two or more cases of ovarian cancer are likely to be due to BRCA1 mutations.
The vitamin D3 receptor gene (VDR) contains a TaqI RFLP that is associated with increased VDR mRNA stability, increased serum levels of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3), and decreased risk for prostate cancer. Determination of the TaqI genotype, in a group of young women with breast cancer (n = 111; age,
Of the confirmed type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci only a few are known to affect insulin sensitivity. We examined the association of indices of hepatic and adipocyte insulin resistance (IR) with 19 confirmed type 2 diabetes risk loci in a large population-based study.
Non-diabetic participants (n?=?8,460, age 57.3?±?7.0 years, BMI 26.8?±?3.8 kg/m(2); mean ± SD) from a population-based cohort underwent an OGTT. Of them, 6,733 non-diabetic men were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near PPARG2 (also known as PPARG), KCNJ11, TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKN2B, IGF2BP2, CDKAL1, HNF1B, WFS1, JAZF1, CDC123, TSPAN8, THADA, ADAMTS9, NOTCH2, KCNQ1, MTNR1B and SNP rs7480010. We investigated hepatic IR with a new index of liver IR. The adipocyte IR index was defined as a product of fasting NEFA and plasma insulin levels.
Type 2 diabetes risk SNPs in or near KCNJ11 and HHEX were significantly (p?
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent chronic inflammatory skin disease developing as a result of the interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Considerable role in allergic diseases development is played by polymorphisms of genes of pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) which are capable of recognizing conservative standard molecular structures (patterns) unique for large pathogen groups. In this study polymorphic variants of PRR genes--Toll-like receptors (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR9, TLR10), NOD-like receptors (NOD1, NOD2), lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 gene, and C11orf30 and LRRC32 genes, located in 11q13.5 region, have been investigated in AD patients and control subjects from the Republic of Bashkortostan. An association of TLR1 (rs5743571 and rs5743604), TLR6 (rs5743794) and TLR10 (rs11466617) with AD was found. Our results confirm an important role of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis of AD and the significance of polymorphisms within the Toll-like receptor 2 subfamily genes in AD development.
Association testing of novel type 2 diabetes risk alleles in the JAZF1, CDC123/CAMK1D, TSPAN8, THADA, ADAMTS9, and NOTCH2 loci with insulin release, insulin sensitivity, and obesity in a population-based sample of 4,516 glucose-tolerant middle-aged Danes.
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact on diabetes-related intermediary traits of common novel type 2 diabetes-associated variants in the JAZF1 (rs864745), CDC123/CAMK1D (rs12779790), TSPAN8 (rs7961581), THADA (rs7578597), ADAMTS9 (rs4607103), and NOTCH2 (rs10923931) loci, which were recently identified by meta-analysis of genome-wide association data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We genotyped the six variants in 4,516 middle-aged glucose-tolerant individuals of the population-based Inter99 cohort who were all characterized by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). RESULTS: Homozygous carriers of the minor diabetes risk G-allele of the CDC123/CAMK1D rs12779790 showed an 18% decrease in insulinogenic index (95% CI 10-27%; P = 4 x 10(-5)), an 18% decrease in corrected insulin response (CIR) (8.1-29%; P = 4 x 10(-4)), and a 13% decrease in the ratio of area under the serum-insulin and plasma-glucose curves during an OGTT (AUC-insulin/AUC-glucose) (5.8-20%; P = 4 x 10(-4)). Carriers of the diabetes-associated T-allele of JAZF1 rs864745 had an allele-dependent 3% decrease in BIGTT-AIR (0.9-4.3%; P = 0.003). Furthermore, the diabetes-associated C-allele of TSPAN8 rs7961581 associated with decreased levels of CIR (4.5% [0.5-8.4]; P = 0.03), of AUC-insulin/AUC-glucose ratio (3.9% [1.2-6.7]; P = 0.005), and of the insulinogenic index (5.2% [1.9-8.6]; P = 0.002). No association with traits of insulin release or insulin action was observed for the THADA, ADAMTS9, or NOTCH2 variants. CONCLUSIONS: If replicated, our data suggest that type 2 diabetes at-risk alleles in the JAZF1, CDC123/CAMK1D, and TSPAN8 loci associate with various OGTT-based surrogate measures of insulin release, emphasizing the contribution of abnormal pancreatic beta-cell function in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.