The results of multicenter prospective trial for efficacy of combined modality treatment: transurethral resection (TUR)+photodynamic therapy (PDT) with alasens for bladder cancer are represented in the article. Trials were organized by Research Institute of Organic Intermediates and Dyes and conducted according to clinical protocol approved by Ministry of Health of Russia, at the sites of leading Russian cancer clinical centers. The trial included 45 subjects with verified diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients underwent TUR of bladder with simultaneous PDT as anti-relapse treatment. Alasens was administered to patients as intravesicular instillation of 3% solution in volume of 50ml with 1.5-2h exposure (prior to TUR). TUR was performed after instillation. PDT session was conducted immediately after the completion of TUR on a single occasion by means of combined local irradiation on tumor bed with diffuse irradiation on whole urinary bladder mucosa (light dose of local irradiation - 100J/cm2, diffuse irradiation - 20J/cm2). Good tolerance of the treatment was noticed, there were no complications. Among 45 patients included in the trial, 35 (78%) completed 12 month protocol follow-up without relapse. In our study PDT with alasens after TUR reported a recurrence rate of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer for 1st year after treatment of 22%. TUR with intraoperative PDT with 5-aminolevulinic acid may offer an alternative in the treatment of non-muscle-invasive intermediate and high-risk bladder cancer.
Type IV collagenase (gelatinase) is a 70,000 dalton neutral metalloproteinase that specifically cleaves type IV collagen in addition to degrading denatured collagen (gelatin). It is secreted in a latent proenzyme form that is converted proteolytically in the extracellular space to a 62,000 dalton active enzyme. The primary structure, enzymatic properties as well as gene structure, demonstrate that type IV collagenase is closely related with the other well characterized metalloproteinases, interstitial collagenase and stromelysin. However, the structure of type IV collagenase differs from the others in that it is larger and contains three internal repeats that resemble the type II domains of fibronectin. Also, initial characterization of the promoter region of the gene indicates that its regulation differs from the other proteinase genes. Type IV collagenase is presumably required for the normal turnover of basement membranes. Augmented activity is linked with the invasive potential of tumor cells and the enzyme is believed to play a major role in the penetration of basement membranes by metastatic cells. Measurements of enzyme activity and mRNA levels as well as immunostaining of a variety of tumor cells and tissues suggest that assays for the enzyme may have value in the follow-up of malignant growth.
One hundred twenty-nine adenocarcinomas involving the esophagus and/or gastric cardia differed significantly from 212 cancers of the rest of the stomach as follows: male-female ratio, 6:1 versus 2:1, birth outside Canada, US or UK, 12% versus 34%; parent or sibling with gastric cancer, 5% versus 13%; previous duodenal ulcer, 23% versus 9%; chronic reflux symptoms, 25% versus 3%; hiatal hernia, 51% versus 11%. Of the 129 esophagocardia cancers, 24 involved the esophagus alone, 48 the cardia and esophagus, 33 the cardia alone or cardia and fundus, and 24 the upper stomach and lower esophagus extensively. Thirty-four were associated with Barrett's esophagus. The 72 patients with involvement of both the upper stomach and lower esophagus (48 cardia and esophagus, 24 extensive) were identical with the esophagocardia group as a whole. The 24 patients with esophageal cancer and the 34 with Barrett's epithelium were the same clinically as the whole esophagocardia group except more had chronic reflux and hiatal hernia. The 33 patients with cancer confined to the cardia or cardia and fundus resembled the whole esophagocardia group but did not have Barrett's esophagus. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagocardia region is probably a different disease from cancer of the rest of the stomach.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Adenomas develop only rarely in the small bowel mucosa. We particularly tried to clarify the histologic change in atypia of ampullary adenomas which are not familial polyposis. METHODOLOGY: Four adenomas, 4 adenocarcinomas, and 4 normal mucosal regions of the ampulla of Vater were investigated in this study. All cases were characterized in paraffin sections for the presence of p53 protein using the anti-p53 monoclonal antibody (DO7, Dako Corp., Glostrup, Denmark) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen using the anti-PCNA antibody (PC 10, Dako A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark). To obtain the percentages (labeling index) of PCNA, a dual wavelength imaging microdensitometer (CAS 200, Elmhurst, IL) was used. RESULTS: Transition of adenoma into adenocarcinoma was recognized in 2 of 4 cases. Labeling index of PCNA was 12.2% in normal mucosa, 41.3% in adenomas, and 66.0% in adenocarcinoma, respectively. In 2 cases with carcinoma in adenoma, labeling index was higher in carcinomatous lesion than in adenomatous lesion. p53 Protein was positive in all cases of adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater, and not in any case of normal mucosa or adenoma. CONCLUSIONS: The adenoma-carcinoma sequence was morphologically recognized especially in tiny carcinoma in adenoma of the papilla of Vater. Both p53 mutation and high proliferative activity play important roles for the histogenesis of invasive adenocarcinoma.
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare benign tumor occurring almost exclusively in adolescent and young adult males. The tumor is characterized by slow progression, aggressive growth, high vascularization, and increased rate of persistence and recurrence. The aim of this study was to describe a case of giant JNA from our practice and discuss the controversies of surgical treatment of advanced JNA.
A series of 29 consecutive male patients with JNA Fisch grade III and IV was surgically treated in Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute from 2000 until 2008. In the vast majority of cases, endovascular embolization and surgical removal via orbitozygomatic approach were applied.
Gross total resection was achieved in 24 cases (83%). Complications were encountered in eight cases. No mortality was observed. In three patients, the diseases recurred. An illustrative case is described.
Surgical treatment is the basic tactics in management of extensive JNA including endovascular embolization and resection of the tumor. We recommend using orbitozygomatic approach or its modifications in JNA. Radiation therapy may be recommended for patients with small residual tumor.
A clinico-pathologic review was performed on all younger (under 35 years) and older (55 years or over) women with a diagnosis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma assessed at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre from 1980 to 1985 to determine the effect of age at diagnosis on survival. 45 younger women were identified: 32 were Stage IB; 10, Stage II; and 3, Stage III. 64 older women were identified: 16 were Stage IB; 30, Stage II; 14, Stage III; and 4, Stage IV. For Stage IB women, 40.6% of younger patients developed persistent or recurrent disease and all except one are dead; only one (6.2%) older woman's tumour recurred and she is alive with disease. Younger women had a poorer disease-free survival not only for Stage IB disease (p = 0.014) but also in Stages II and III (p = 0.020). In this study age at diagnosis was an independent prognostic variable with younger women having a poorer disease-free and overall survival.
Alcohol intake has consistently been associated with increased breast cancer incidence in epidemiological studies. However, the relation between alcohol and survival after breast cancer diagnosis is less clear.
We investigated whether alcohol intake was associated with survival among 3146 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Alcohol consumption was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).
From 1987 to 2008 there were 385 breast cancer-specific deaths and 860 total deaths. No significant association was observed between alcohol intake and breast cancer-specific survival. Women who consumed 10 g per day (corresponding to approximately 0.75 to 1 drinks) or more of alcohol had an adjusted HR (95% CI) of breast cancer-specific death of 1.36 (0.82-2.26;p(trend)=0.47) compared with non-drinkers. A significant inverse association was observed between alcohol and non-breast cancer deaths. Those who consumed 3.4-9.9 g per day of alcohol had a 33% lower risk of death compared with non-drinkers (95% CI 0.50-0.90;p(trend)=0.04).
Our findings suggest that alcohol intake up to approximately one small drink per day does not negatively impact breast cancer-specific survival and a half drink per day is associated with a decreased risk of mortality from other causes.
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We conducted a population-based cohort study to analyze the risk of developing cancers of the female genitals among 36,856 patients with a hospital discharge diagnosis of alcoholism (ICD-7: 307, 322; ICD-8: 291, 303; ICD-9: 291, 303, 305A) in Sweden between 1965 and 1995. The follow-up was done by linkages of national registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed based on nationwide specific cancer rates. The first year of follow-up was excluded from all analyses to minimize the impact of selection bias. We found that alcoholic women had excess risks for in situ cervical cancer (SIR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.9), for invasive cervical cancer (SIR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.4-3.5), and for cancer of the vagina (SIR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.2-8.5) but not for cancer of the vulva (SIR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.4-2.0). The fact that alcoholics had an excess risk also for the in situ cancer suggests that the observed excess in invasive cervical cancer may not only be attributable to less use of Pap smear screening among them. The alcoholic women may be at higher risk for the progression from human papillomavirus infection to a malignant lesion for lifestyle-related reasons (promiscuity, smoking, use of contraceptive hormones, and dietary deficiencies). We conclude that alcoholic women are at high risk for in situ and invasive cervical cancer and for cancer of the vagina.
We recently showed that increased urinary excretion of the cross-linked, nonisomerized form of the C-telopeptide of collagen type I (alphaalphaCTX) could be a sensitive indicator of the presence of bone metastases in breast cancer patients. The present study was sought to investigate (a) the localization of alphaCTX epitopes in the proximity of a bone metastasis and (b) the relationship between number of metastases and the urinary excretion of alphaalphaCTX. Adjacent bone sections from breast cancer patients were stained for the presence of tumor cells (anti-cytokeratin antibody), osteoclasts (TRAcP activity), and alphaCTX (anti-alphaCTX antibody). The association between the extent of metastatic bone disease and urinary excretion of alphaalphaCTX measured with ELISA was assessed in 90 breast cancer patients (45 with bone metastasis and 45 without bone metastasis). Immunohistochemistry revealed accumulation of TRAcP-positive osteoclasts and intense staining for alphaCTX epitopes in the proximity of cytokeratin-positive bone metastasis. Areas of alphaCTX staining showed unstructured bone tissue under polarized light. In addition, there was a significant linear association between the number of bone metastases and the urinary levels of alphaalphaCTX in breast cancer patients with metastatic bone disease, independent of age and body mass index (r = 0.56, P
American Society of Clinical Oncology endorsement of the cancer care Ontario practice guideline on adjuvant ovarian ablation in the treatment of premenopausal women with early-stage invasive breast cancer.
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has policies and procedures for endorsing practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations.
The Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) Guideline on Adjuvant Ovarian Ablation (OA) in the Treatment of Premenopausal Women With Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists. An ad hoc review panel of experts reviewed the content.
The ASCO ad hoc OA guideline review panel concurred that the recommendations are clear, thorough, based on the most relevant scientific evidence in this content area, and present options that will be acceptable to patients. According to the CCO guideline: one, OA should not be routinely added to systemic therapy with chemotherapy, tamoxifen, or the combination of tamoxifen and chemotherapy; two, OA alone is not recommended as an alternative to any other form of systemic therapy, except in the specific case of patients who are candidates for other forms of systemic therapy but who, for some reason, will not receive any other systemic therapy (eg, patients who cannot tolerate other forms of systemic therapy or patients who choose no other form of systemic therapy); and three, when chemical suppression using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists is the chosen method of OA, in the opinion of the Breast Cancer Disease Site Group, monthly injection is the recommended mode of administration. The mode of administration in nearly all of the available trials has been monthly administration.
The ASCO review panel agrees with the recommendations as stated in the CCO guideline, with the qualification that ongoing research studies may alter the recommendations of the panel.