There are limited head-to-head randomized data on patient-related versus stent-related outcomes for everolimus-eluting stents (EES) and sirolimus-eluting stents (SES).
In the SORT OUT IV (Scandinavian Organization for Randomized Trials With Clinical Outcome IV) trial, comparing the EES with the SES in patients with coronary artery disease, the EES was noninferior to the SES at 9 months.
The primary endpoint was a composite: cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), definite stent thrombosis, or target vessel revascularization. Safety and efficacy outcomes at 2 years were further assessed with specific focus on patient-related composite (all death, all MI, or any revascularization) and stent-related composite outcomes (cardiac death, target vessel MI, or symptom-driven target lesion revascularization). A total of 1,390 patients were assigned to receive the EES, and 1,384 patients were assigned to receive the SES.
At 2 years, the composite primary endpoint occurred in 8.3% in the EES group and in 8.7% in the SES group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 to 1.22). The patient-related outcome: 15.0% in the EES group versus 15.6% in the SES group, (HR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.15), and the stent-related outcome: 5.2% in the EES group versus 5.3% in the SES group (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.35) did not differ between groups. Rate of definite stent thrombosis was lower in the EES group (0.2% vs. 0.9%, (HR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.80).
At 2-year follow-up, the EES was found to be noninferior to the SES with regard to both patient-related and stent-related clinical outcomes.
(18)F-FDG PET may assist decision making in ischemic cardiomyopathy. The PET and Recovery Following Revascularization (PARR 2) trial demonstrated a trend toward beneficial outcomes with PET-assisted management. The substudy of PARR 2 that we call Ottawa-FIVE, described here, was a post hoc analysis to determine the benefit of PET in a center with experience, ready access to (18)F-FDG, and integration with clinical teams.
Included were patients with left ventricular dysfunction and suspected coronary artery disease being considered for revascularization. The patients had been randomized in PARR 2 to PET-assisted management (group 1) or standard care (group 2) and had been enrolled in Ottawa after August 1, 2002 (the date that on-site (18)F-FDG was initiated) (n = 111). The primary outcome was the composite endpoint of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or cardiac rehospitalization within 1 y. Data were compared with the rest of PARR 2 (PET-assisted management [group 3] or standard care [group 4]).
In the Ottawa-FIVE subgroup of PARR 2, the cumulative proportion of patients experiencing the composite event was 19% (group 1), versus 41% (group 2). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression showed a benefit for the PET-assisted strategy (hazard ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.72; P = 0.005). Compared with other patients in PARR 2, Ottawa-FIVE patients had a lower ejection fraction (25% +/- 7% vs. 27% +/- 8%, P = 0.04), were more often female (24% vs. 13%, P = 0.006), tended to be older (64 +/- 10 y vs. 62 +/- 10 y, P = 0.07), and had less previous coronary artery bypass grafting (13% vs. 21%, P = 0.07). For patients in the rest of PARR 2, there was no significant difference in events between groups 3 and 4. The observed effect of (18)F-FDG PET-assisted management in the 4 groups in the context of adjusted survival curves demonstrated a significant interaction (P = 0.016). Comparisons of the 2 arms in Ottawa-FIVE to the 2 arms in the rest of PARR 2 demonstrated a trend toward significance (standard care, P = 0.145; PET-assisted management, P = 0.057).
In this post hoc group analysis, a significant reduction in cardiac events was observed in patients with (18)F-FDG PET-assisted management, compared with patients who received standard care. The results suggest that outcome may be benefited using (18)F-FDG PET in an experienced center with ready access to (18)F-FDG and integration with imaging, heart failure, and revascularization teams.
This study describes the influence of complete revascularization on the long term survival of patients following coronary artery bypass surgery. The patient population consists of 100 consecutive patients discharged from our department after undergoing a coronary bypass operation between November 1973 and July 1978. Patients who survived less than 30 days postoperatively are excluded from the study. The patient population consists of 87 males and 13 females. Mean age was 52.2 years at time of surgery. The rate of revascularization was estimated by coronary angiography, performed between one and 34 months postoperatively, in contrast to other similar studies found in the literature, where such estimation was performed peroperatively. Twenty-five of 86 patients were completely revascularized at postoperative angiographic estimation. Long term survival for the patient population and for the group of completely revascularized patients were compared to the expected survival of the Danish background population (comparable age and sex). Long term survival for the patient population as a whole was similar to that found in similar studies. There was an expected increased mortality compared to the Danish background population.
Many consider smoking to be a personal choice for which individuals should be held accountable. We assessed whether there is any evidence of bias against smokers in cardiac care decision-making by determining whether smokers were as likely as non-smokers to undergo revascularization procedures after cardiac catheterization.
Prospective cohort study. Subjects and setting. All patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in Alberta, Canada.
Patients were categorized as current smokers, former smokers, or never smokers, and then compared for their risk-adjusted likelihood of undergoing revascularization procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) after cardiac catheterization.
Among 20406 patients undergoing catheterization, 25.4% were current smokers at the time of catheterization, 36.6% were former smokers, and 38.0% had never smoked. When compared with never smokers (reference group), the hazard ratio for undergoing any revascularization procedure after catheterization was 0.98 (95% CI 0.93-1.03) for current smokers and 0.98 (0.94-1.03) for former smokers. The hazard ratio for undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting was 1.09 (1.00-1.19) for current smokers and 1.00 (0.93-1.08) for former smokers. For percutaneous coronary intervention, the hazard ratios were 0.93 (0.87-0.99) for current smokers and 1.00 (0.94-1.06) for former smokers.
Despite potential for discrimination on the basis of smoking status, current and former smokers undergoing cardiac catheterization in Alberta, Canada were as likely to undergo revascularization procedures as catheterization patients who had never smoked.
Early access to revascularization procedures is known to be related to a more favorable outcome in myocardial infarction (MI) patients, but access to specialized care varies widely amongst the population. We aim to test if the early gap found in the revascularization rates, according to distance between patients' location and the closest specialized cardiology center (SCC), remains on a long term basis.
We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from the Quebec's hospital discharge register (MED-ECHO). The study population includes all patients 25 years and older living in the province of Quebec, who were hospitalized for a MI in 1999 with a follow up time of one year after the index hospitalization. The main variable is revascularization (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or a coronary artery bypass graft). The population is divided in four groups depending how close they are from a SCC ( or = 105 km). Revascularization rates are adjusted for age and sex.
The study population includes 11,802 individuals, 66% are men. The one-year incidence rate of MI is 244 individuals per 100,000 inhabitants. At index hospitalization, a significant gap is found between patients living close ( or = 32 km). During the first year, a gap reduction can be observed but only for patients living at an intermediate distance from the specialized center (64-105 km).
The gap observed in revascularization rates at the index hospitalization for MI is in favour of patients living closer (
Cites: Can J Cardiol. 1999 Nov;15(11):1277-8210579743
Quality indicators in coronary heart disease (CHD) measure the practice gap between optimal care and current clinical practice. However, the potential impact of achieving quality indicator benchmarks remains unknown.
Using a validated, epidemiologic model of CHD in Ontario, Canada, we estimated the potential impact on mortality of improved utilization on CHD quality indicators from 2005 levels to recommend benchmark utilization of 90%. Eight CHD disease subgroups were evaluated, including inpatients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), acute coronary syndromes, and heart failure, in addition to ambulatory patients who were post-acute myocardial infarction survivors, or had heart failure, chronic stable angina, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. The primary outcome was the predicted mortality reduction associated with meeting quality indicator targets for each CHD subgroup-treatment combination.
In 2005, there were 10,060 CHD deaths in Ontario, representing an age-adjusted CHD mortality of 191 per 100,000 people. By meeting quality indicator utilization benchmarks, mortality could be potentially reduced by approximately 20% (95% confidence interval 17.8-21.1), representing approximately 1960 avoidable deaths. The bulk of this potential benefit was in ambulatory patients with chronic stable angina (36% of reduction) and heart failure (31% of reduction). The biggest drivers were optimizing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use in chronic stable angina patients (approximately 440 avoidable deaths) and ß-blocker use in heart failure (approximately 400 avoidable deaths).
These findings reinforce the importance of quality indicators and could aid policy makers in prioritizing strategies to meet the goals outlined in the Canadian Heart Health Strategy and Action Plan for reducing cardiovascular mortality.
Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) may precipitate up to a third of acute heart failure (AHF) cases. We assessed the characteristics, initial management, and survival of AHF patients with (ACS-AHF) and without (nACS-AHF) concomitant ACS.
Data from 620 AHF patients were analyzed in a prospective multicenter study. The ACS-AHF patients (32%) more often presented with de novo AHF (61% vs. 43%; P
There is a paucity of data regarding prognosis in patients with acute versus chronic myocardial injury for long-term outcomes. We hypothesised that patients with chronic myocardial injury have a similar long-term prognosis as patients with acute myocardial injury.
In an observational cohort study of 22?589 patients who had high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) measured in the emergency department during 2011-2014, we identified all patients with level >14?ng/L and categorised them as acute myocardial injury, type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI), type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI) or chronic myocardial injury through adjudication. We estimated adjusted HRs with 95% CIs for the primary outcome all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes MI, and heart failure in patients with acute myocardial injury, T1MI and T2MI compared with chronic myocardial injury.
In total, 3853 patients were included. During 3.9 (±2) years of follow-up, 48%, 24%, 44% and 49% of patients with acute myocardial injury, T1MI, T2MI and chronic myocardial injury died, respectively. Patients with acute myocardial injury had higher adjusted risks of death (1.21, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.36) and heart failure (1.24, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.43), but a similar risk for myocardial infarction (MI) compared with the reference group. Patients with T1MI had a lower adjusted risk of death (0.86, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.00) and higher risk of MI (2.09, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.68), but a similar risk of heart failure. Patients with T2MI had a higher adjusted risk of death (1.46, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.80) and heart failure (1.30, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.69) compared with patients with chronic myocardial injury.
Absolute long-term risks for death are similar, and adjusted risks are slightly higher, among patients with acute myocardial injury and T2MI, respectively, compared with chronic myocardial injury. The lowest risk of long-term mortality was found in patients with T1MI. Both acute and chronic myocardial injury are associated with very high risks of adverse outcomes.
To assess specialists' adaptation to long waiting lists for coronary revascularization, and their acceptance of a formal queue-ordering schema proposed by an expert panel.
Mail survey of practitioners in referral centers using 49 hypothetical case scenarios. Scenarios were rated for maximum acceptable delay prior to coronary surgery, on a scale with seven interventional time frames graded from emergency to three to six months' permissible delay. The survey included the proposed schema and rating system; respondents were invited to differ as they saw fit. HYPOTHETICAL PATIENTS: Assumed uniformly to be middle aged with typical angina, but clinical factors varied, eg, severity and stability of angina, response to medical therapy, coronary anatomy, and noninvasive test results. PHYSICIAN SUBJECTS: There were 122 respondents, for a 60 percent response rate, including a majority of cardiac surgeons and invasive cardiologists on staff in Ontario teaching hospitals.
Fifty-seven percent rated some scenarios for acceptable waiting times of three to six months; another 39 percent rated their least urgent scenarios to wait six weeks to three months. Interpractitioner agreement was high: for 48/49 scenarios, at least 75 percent of urgency ratings fell within two contiguous points on the scale. Symptom status was the dominant determinant of waiting time, with mean maximum acceptable wait of 74 days for patients with mild-moderate stable angina but three days for those receiving parenteral nitroglycerin (p less than 0.00001). About half the ratings matched those predicted based on the original panel's consensus criteria; 90 percent were within one scale point.
Specialist practitioners in Ontario have adapted to waiting lists for coronary artery bypass surgery/percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, and assess the priority of hypothetical patients in similar ways and in reasonable accord with formal queue-ordering criteria. This behavior may help mitigate the impact of resource constraints, allowing delay of services for those with less acute need--a potential contrast to delayed access in America based on low income or lack of insurance.
Complete following existing guidelines for management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is known to be associated with better outcomes. Partly this is explained by lesser adherence to recommendations in high risk patients. Aim of our study was to assess relationship between degree of following current guidelines and in hospital outcomes independently from initial assessment of risk.
Each key recommendation from guidelines issued between 2008 and 2011 (13 for STE ACS, 12 for NSTE ACS) was given weight of 1. Sum of these units constituted index of guideline adherence (IGA). IGA was retrospectively calculated for 1656 patients included in Russian independent ACS registry RECORD-2 (7 hospitals, duration 04.2009 to 04.2011). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to quartiles of IGA distribution: 1) low adherence group (quartiles I-II); 2) high adherence group (quartiles III-IV).
In low adherence compared with high adherence group there were significantly more patients more or equal 65 years (=0.0007), with chronic heart failure [CHF] (