For all climatic regions, mortality due to cold exceeds mortality due to heat. A separate line of research indicates that season of birth predicts lifespan after age 50. This and other literature implies the hypothesis that ambient temperature during gestation may influence cold-related adult mortality. We use data on over 13,500 Swedes from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Study to test whether cold-related mortality in adulthood varies positively with unusually benign ambient temperature during gestation. We linked daily thermometer temperatures in Uppsala, Sweden (1915-2002) to subjects beginning at their estimated date of conception and ending at death or the end of follow-up. We specified a Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates to analyze the two leading causes of cold-related death in adulthood: ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke. Over 540,450 person-years, 1313 IHD and 406 stroke deaths occurred. For a one standard deviation increase in our measure of warm temperatures during gestation, we observe an increased hazard ratio of 1.16 for cold-related IHD death (95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.29). We, however, observe no relation for cold-related stroke mortality. Additional analyses show that birthweight percentile and/or gestational age do not mediate discovered findings. The IHD results indicate that ambient temperature during gestation--independent of birth month--modifies the relation between cold and adult mortality. We encourage longitudinal studies of the adult sequelae of ambient temperature during gestation among populations not sufficiently sheltered from heat or cold waves.
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to quantify the impact of different dietary factors on the mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Denmark. METHODS: Relative risks and knowledge on the distribution of different dietary factors were used to estimate etiological fractions. RESULTS: It is estimated that an intake of fruit and vegetables and saturated fat as recommended would prevent 12 and 22%, respectively, of deaths from ischaemic heart disease in Denmark. An intake of fish among those at high risk for ischaemic heart disease, would lead to a 26% lower mortality, while alcohol intake among abstainers would have no significant quantitative effect. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that changes in dietary habits according to current recommendations would have an impact on public health in Denmark.
Light-to-moderate alcohol drinking is associated with a decreased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). However, drinking heavily and in binges has been suggested to increase IHD risk. This complexity makes the issue of binge drinking within the light-to-moderate alcohol range an important area for further investigation.
This population-based cohort study included 26,786 men and women who participated in the Danish National Cohort Study in 1994, 2000, and 2005. Binge drinking (defined >5 drinks/day) and risk of IHD and all-cause mortality was investigated among light-to-moderate drinkers (defined =21 and =14 drinks/week for men and women, respectively). In the entire study population, we investigated the association between drinking frequency, separately and combined with total weekly alcohol intake, and risk of IHD and all-cause mortality.
1136 individuals developed IHD during a mean follow up of 6.9 years. Among male light-to-moderate drinkers reporting occasional binge drinking, the hazard ratio (HR) of IHD was 0.81 (95% CI 0.61-1.08) compared to male light-to-moderate drinkers reporting no binge drinking. Corresponding HR for women was 0.97 (95% CI 0.54-1.76). For women drinking 5-6 days/week, the risk of IHD was lower than for women drinking 1-2 days/week (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.90). We did not observe any patterns when looking at combinations of total weekly alcohol intake and drinking frequency.
Among light-to-moderate alcohol drinkers, binge drinking was not associated with risk of IHD and all-cause mortality. Overall, drinking frequency did not appear to be an important determinant of the risk of IHD and all-cause mortality.
The decline in cardiovascular mortality in Russia following the Soviet anti-alcohol campaign of 1985-1988 and the subsequent increase when these extreme alcohol controls were repealed suggested that alcohol consumption is responsible for a substantial number of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) deaths in Russia. To examine whether a similar conclusion can be drawn on the basis of a time-series analysis covering a longer time period, namely 1959-1998.
Using ARIMA time-series analysis, the male IHD mortality rates from 1959 to 1998 were analysed in relation to three indicators of alcohol consumption: estimated per capita consumption, mortality from liver cirrhosis and alcohol poisonings. Cigarette sales and lung cancer mortality were used as indicators of smoking.
Each indicator of alcohol consumption had positive and statistically significant relationships with male IHD mortality in bivariate autoregressive integrated moving average models. The association was stronger in models predicting changes in premature male IHD mortality (30-54 years). At least one alcohol indicator was significantly related to IHD mortality in multivariate models, and in the case of premature IHD mortality, both mortality indicators were significant.
The results provide additional empirical evidence supporting alcohol's conceivable negative effects on IHD in Russia and the idea that binge drinking could be the mechanism through which this effect is mediated. There were no signs of any protective effects from alcohol among Russian men.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk in men and women smoking 1-4 cigarettes per day of dying from specified smoking related diseases and from any cause. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Oslo city and three counties in Norway. PARTICIPANTS: 23,521 men and 19,201 women, aged 35-49 years, screened for cardiovascular disease risk factors in the mid 1970s and followed throughout 2002. OUTCOMES: Absolute mortality and relative risks adjusted for confounding variables, of dying from ischaemic heart disease, all cancer, lung cancer, and from all causes. RESULTS: Adjusted relative risk (95% confidence interval) in smokers of 1-4 cigarettes per day, with never smokers as reference, of dying from ischaemic heart disease was 2.74 (2.07 to 3.61) in men and 2.94 (1.75 to 4.95) in women. The corresponding figures for all cancer were 1.08 (0.78 to 1.49) and 1.14 (0.84 to 1.55), for lung cancer 2.79 (0.94 to 8.28) and 5.03 (1.81 to 13.98), and for any cause 1.57 (1.33 to 1.85) and 1.47 (1.19 to 1.82). CONCLUSIONS: In both sexes, smoking 1-4 cigarettes per day was associated with a significantly higher risk of dying from ischaemic heart disease and from all causes, and from lung cancer in women. Smoking control policymakers and health educators should emphasise more strongly that light smokers also endanger their health.
OBJECTIVES: A Norwegian coke plant that operated from 1964 to 1988 was investigated to ascertain whether the male workers in this plant had increased morbidities of cancer or increased mortality from specific causes, particularly associated with specific exposures at the coke plant. METHODS: Personal data on all the employees of the plant were obtained from the plant's archives. With additional data from the Norwegian Bureau of Statistics we identified 888 male former workers at the plant. Causes of death were obtained from the Norwegian Bureau of Statistics, and cancer diagnoses from the Norwegian Cancer Registry. The results were compared with national averages adjusted for age. Specific exposures were estimated with records of actual measurements done at the plant and interviews with former workers at the plant. RESULTS: A significant excess of stomach cancer (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01 to 4.21) was found. Mortality from ischaemic heart disease and sudden death was positively associated with work in areas which entailed peak exposures to CO. When considering work in such areas the past 3 years before death, the association was significant (p = 0.01). The last result is based on only two deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the short follow up time and the small size of the cohort the results should be interpreted with a certain caution. The positive results would justify a re-examination of the cohort at a later date.
The mortality from ischaemic heart disease was studied in a prospective cohort of 1725 shipyard workers exposed to asbestos. The analyses were stratified for age and smoking habits and restricted to men. In agreement with other findings, men with impaired lung function had a significantly higher risk (relative risk (RR) = 3.5) of dying from ischaemic heart disease than men with normal lung function. Men with asbestosis or suspected asbestosis had a significantly higher risk (RR = 3.1) of dying from ischaemic heart disease than men without asbestosis. Thus asbestosis or suspected asbestosis also seemed to be a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease. This finding was independent of respiratory function. There was no increased risk for ischaemic heart disease in men with compared with men without pleural plaques. Men with production of phlegm or sputum and wheezing or whistling had no increased risk for ischaemic heart disease compared with men without these symptoms. In the group with normal lung function men with dyspnoea had a significantly higher risk of dying from ischaemic heart disease than men without dyspnoea. The findings for men with asbestosis or suspected asbestosis indicated a further risk factor besides impaired lung function, in persons exposed to asbestos. Perhaps this risk factor is due to lesions of the pericardium with consequences for heart function.