Although type 2 diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for developing congestive heart failure, the mechanism leading to heart failure is unclear. We examined the prevalence of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in relation to vascular function and myocardial perfusion.
A prospective observational study of 305 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (diabetes duration, 4.5+/-5.3 years) referred consecutively to a diabetes clinic were screened for LV systolic and diastolic function by echocardiography. Vascular function was estimated using noninvasive estimation of pulse pressure, carotid arterial compliance, total arterial compliance, and valvulo-arterial impedance. The prevalences of LV diastolic dysfunction and left atrial (LA) volume index >32 mL/m(2) were 40% and 32%, respectively. The prevalence of myocardial ischemia on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was more frequent in patients with grade 2 diastolic dysfunction and LA volume index >32 mL/m(2) compared with those having normal or grade 1 diastolic dysfunction (P=0.002) or LA volume index
This study aimed to investigate whether sedentary work is a distinct risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD) when the effect of occupational sitting is disentangled from that of occupational physical activity.
Data on occupational sitting time and several covariates were derived from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS) conducted every five years from 1990-2005 among the active Danish population. This study was designed as a multi-wave longitudinal study including participants employed at entry. Respondents were followed in national registers, first for death or hospital treatment due to IHD and second for purchase of medication that may prevent IHD from (re)occurring serving as a proxy for IHD.
During 145 850 person-years of follow-up, 510 cases of fatal and non-fatal IHD occurred. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and socioeconomic status, no difference in risk of IHD was observed between sedentary and non-sedentary employees [hazard ratio (HR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.78-1.16]. During 44 949 and 42 456 person-years of follow-up among men and and women, respectively, 1263 men and 1364 women purchased IHD-related medication. No differences in risk were observed between sedentary and non-sedentary participants, either for men or women. A dose-response relationship between occupational sitting time and the risk of IHD was also not detected.
This study could not confirm the hypothesis that sedentary work is a distinct risk factor for IHD. Future studies may further investigate the association with objective measures of occupational sitting time.
Particulate air pollution and risk of ST-segment depression during repeated submaximal exercise tests among subjects with coronary heart disease: the Exposure and Risk Assessment for Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Ambient Air (ULTRA) study.
Daily variations in ambient particulate air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We therefore assessed the associations between levels of the 3 main modes of urban aerosol distribution and the occurrence of ST-segment depressions during repeated exercise tests.
Repeated biweekly submaximal exercise tests were performed during 6 months among adult subjects with stable coronary heart disease in Helsinki, Finland. Seventy-two exercise-induced ST-segment depressions >0.1 mV occurred during 342 exercise tests among 45 subjects. Simultaneously, particle mass
Comment In: Circulation. 2002 Aug 20;106(8):890-212186787
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the commonly recognized link between stress and cardiovascular disease is causal or the result of reporting bias. The objective of this study was to address the association between perceived stress and first incidence of ischemic heart disease and to evaluate the suggested reporting bias by addressing subdiagnoses of ischemic heart disease separately. METHODS: The 11,839 men and women who participated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were at baseline (1981-1983) asked about their stress level. The participants were followed in nationwide registries until the year 2000, and fewer than 0.1% were lost to follow-up. During follow-up, 2316 individuals were diagnosed with ischemic heart disease. RESULTS: High levels of stress were associated with slightly higher risk of incident ischemic heart disease in both women (hazard ratio = 1.23; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.51) and men (1.25; 1.00-1.56). When subdiagnoses of ischemic heart disease were analyzed separately, high stress was associated with markedly higher incidence of angina pectoris for women (1.83; 1.15-2.91) and for men (2.14; 1.32-3.47). There was no association with myocardial infarction for women (0.80; 0.56-1.15) or for men (1.09; 0.79-1.52). All associations attenuated with prolonged follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: It remains uncertain whether perceived stress affects subdiagnoses of ischemic heart disease differently or whether the strong association with angina pectoris was spuriously created by a tendency for stressed individuals to report more cardiovascular symptoms. Future studies on this issue should address subdiagnoses of ischemic heart disease separately and should carefully consider the impact of reporting bias and prolonged follow-up.
Cardiovascular diseases now have a trend to greater prevalence in the direction from the South to the North. This trend is more pronounced in the North of Russia including Far East Federal Region. It is suggested that such trend is caused by different eating behavior responsible for increasing blood pressure in population from colder region, low temperature of the environment, chronic stress in conditions of the North. These risk factors aggravate standard risk factors which operate independently of the geographic region of living. Intensive industrial development of the North Far East regions of Russia demands introduction of effective measures of cardiovascular disease prophylaxis.