AIMS: Very few studies indicating that low-moderate alcohol consumption protects from myocardial infarction (MI) controlled for social support and working conditions, which could confound the findings. Therefore, a first aim was to study the risk of non-fatal and total MI in relation to volume of alcohol consumption and measures of social support and working conditions. A second aim was to analyse the impact of the volume of earlier alcohol use in abstainers. DESIGN: Data came from a case-control study, the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP), including first MI among Swedish citizens 45-70 years old. SETTING: Stockholm County 1992-94. PARTICIPANTS: There were 1095 cases of MI in men and 471 in women (928 and 372 were non-fatal), and 2339 living controls from the general population. MEASUREMENT: Information about alcohol use at different periods in life and job strain, social anchorage and life control besides pre-existing health problems, smoking, physical activity, socio-economic status and marital status was obtained by a questionnaire from the cases and the controls. FINDINGS: In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the relative risk for MI (especially non-fatal) was reduced among alcohol consumers. RR for non-fatal MI was 0.52 (95% confidence intervals 0.32, 0.85) in men with a consumption of 50-69.9 g 100% ethanol/day and 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.06, 0.77) in women with a consumption of 30 g or more per day (reference category 0.1-5 g 100% ethanol/day). Men who were abstainers during the previous 1-10 years and with an earlier average consumption of 5-30 g 100% ethanol/day had a significantly lower relative risk compared to such abstainers with an earlier higher consumption. Earlier consumption among abstainers may also have an impact on gender differences in MI. Analyses showed positive interaction between abstention and low life-control in women, but only 4% of the female cases were due to this interaction. There were no other interactions between measures of alcohol use and social anchorage, life control and working situations. CONCLUSION: Alcohol use had a protective impact on MI, with little impact of job strain, social anchorage and life control, giving increased support for a protective impact of low-moderate alcohol use. The level of previous alcohol consumption among male 1-10-year-long abstainers influenced the risk of MI.
For decades, the Mediterranean diet has been in focus regarding healthy eating as it has been associated with reduced risk of non-communicable diseases. Less interest has been given to health benefits of other regional diets. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was associated with lower risk of myocardial infarction (MI) among middle-aged Danes.
Data were obtained from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study of 57?053 men and women aged 50-64 years recruited between 1993 and 1997. The healthy Nordic food index comprised healthy Nordic food items selected a priori (fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apple and pears and root vegetables). Information on incident MI was ascertained through linkage with national registries. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from sex-specific Cox proportional hazard models.
In total, 1669 men and 653 women developed MI during follow-up (13.6 median years). In adjusted models, those with an index score of 5-6 points (highest scores) had significantly lower MI risk (men: HR=0.77, 95% CI=0.62, 0.97; women: HR=0.55, 95% CI=0.37, 0.82) relative to those scoring 0 points in the index (lowest score). A significantly lower MI risk was found per 1-point increment in the index in both men (HR=0.95, 95% CI=0.92, 0.99) and women (HR=0.93, 95% CI=0.88, 0.98).
A healthy Nordic diet is associated with lower MI risk among middle-aged Danes, suggesting that Nordic diets should be considered in recommendations for dietary changes in the promotion of coronary health.
We studied whether aspirin resistance, defined as failure of suppression of thromboxane generation, increases the risk of cardiovascular events in a high-risk population.
Baseline urine samples were obtained from 5529 Canadian patients enrolled in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study. Using a nested case-control design, we measured urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 levels, a marker of in vivo thromboxane generation, in 488 cases treated with aspirin who had myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death during 5 years of follow-up and in 488 sex- and age-matched control subjects also receiving aspirin who did not have an event. After adjustment for baseline differences, the odds for the composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death increased with each increasing quartile of 11-dehydro thromboxane B2, with patients in the upper quartile having a 1.8-times-higher risk than those in the lower quartile (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.7; P=0.009). Those in the upper quartile had a 2-times-higher risk of myocardial infarction (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.4; P=0.006) and a 3.5-times-higher risk of cardiovascular death (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 7.4; P
The association between the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unclear. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs vary in their antithrombotic properties, with naproxen having a particularly effective antithrombotic potential.
To compare the effect of naproxen vs other NSAIDs in the prevention of AMI in an older population.
Population-based, matched case-control study. Patients (aged > or =65 years) in Quebec had been hospitalized for AMI between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 1994. The admission date for AMI was considered the index date. Control subjects were randomly selected from a Quebec drug and physician claims database. For each case, a control was matched with the same index date, age (within 2 years), and sex. Cases and controls were required to have at least 1 year of pharmaceutical and medical records before the index date to identify risk factors for AMI and exposure to naproxen or other nonaspirin NSAIDs. Concurrent exposure to a medication was defined as exposure to that medication at the index date. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between the use of naproxen and other NSAIDs in the prevention of AMI, adjusting for potential confounders.
Included in the study were 4163 cases and 14 160 controls. Determinants (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals]) of AMI included use in the prior year of anticoagulants (0.76 [0.64-0.90]), nitrates (2.01 [1.86-2.17]), antidiabetic agents (1.72 [1.56-1.90]), antihypertensive agents (1.36 [1.28-1.45]), and lipid-lowering agents (0.83 [0.75-0.91]), as well as concurrent exposure to naproxen vs other NSAIDs (0.79 [0.63-0.99]).
Compared with other NSAIDs, concurrent exposure to naproxen has a protective effect against AMI.
To test whether atenolol (a long acting beta blocker) and metoprolol (a short acting beta blocker) are associated with equivalent reductions in risk for elderly patients undergoing elective surgery.
Population based, retrospective cohort analysis.
Acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, over one decade.
Consecutive patients older than 65 who were admitted for elective surgery, without symptomatic coronary disease.
Death or myocardial infarction.
37,151 patients were receiving atenolol or metoprolol before surgery, of which the most common operations were orthopaedic or abdominal procedures. As expected, the two groups were similar in demographic characteristics, medical therapy, and type of surgery. 1038 patients experienced a myocardial infarction or died, a rate that was significantly lower for patients receiving atenolol than for those receiving metoprolol (2.5% v 3.2%, P
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1999 Dec 9;341(24):1789-9410588963
Cites: JAMA. 1992 Jul 8;268(2):228-321608142
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 2000 Sep 5;133(5):356-910979880
Cites: Am Heart J. 2001 Jan;141(1):148-5311136500
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2001 Aug 30;345(9):663-811547721
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2001 Dec 6;345(23):1677-8211759647
Cites: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Feb 6;39(3):542-5311823097
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1993 Apr 1;118(7):504-108442621
Cites: JAMA. 1995 Jan 25;273(4):302-57815657
Cites: Clin Perform Qual Health Care. 1996 Jul-Sep;4(3):148-5310159303
Cites: J Gen Intern Med. 1995 Dec;10(12):671-88770719
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1996 Dec 5;335(23):1713-208929262
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with estabLished coronary artery improves if smoking is stopped. Still, about half of patients who suffer a myocardial infarction continue smoking after that event. In order to predict to whom additional support should be offered, various baseline characteristics were compared with smoking status at short-term and long-term follow-up. METHODS: Demographics, medical history, presence of coronary risk factors, psychological determinants, and the clinical course were recorded in a group of 530 unselected consecutive patients who had been admitted with a myocardial infarction and were smoking. Patients who were smoking at admission, and who were alive at 4-year follow-up, were studied to relate smoking status and baseline characteristics. RESULTS: At 3 months, persistent smokers were younger than quitters, had shorter hospital stays, underwent revascularization procedures less often, smoked more cigarettes per day at baseline, and were more socially isolated. After 4 years, patients who stopped smoking had had a more serious myocardial infarction and had a lower displeasure score than those who continued smoking. Also, quitters received more support from their social environment. CONCLUSIONS: Although the majority of the patients try to stop smoking after a myocardial infarction, about half smokes after 4 years. In the future, special support should be offered to smokers who suffer myocardial infarction, especially to those whose psychosocial profiles are less favorable.
To examine whether chocolate consumption is associated with a reduced risk of ischaemic heart disease, we used data from a prospective study of Swedish adults and we performed a meta-analysis of available prospective data.
The Swedish prospective study included 67 640 women and men from the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort who had completed a food-frequency questionnaire and were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Myocardial infarction (MI) cases were ascertained through linkage with the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from inception until 4 February 2016 to identify prospective studies on chocolate consumption and risk of ischaemic heart disease.
The results from eligible studies were combined using a random-effects model. During follow-up (1998-2010), 4417 MI cases were ascertained in the Swedish study. Chocolate consumption was inversely associated with MI risk. Compared with non-consumers, the multivariable relative risk for those who consumed =3-4 servings/week of chocolate was 0.87 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.98; p for trend =0.04). Five prospective studies on chocolate consumption and ischaemic heart disease were identified. Together with the Swedish study, the meta-analysis included six studies with a total of 6851 ischaemic heart disease cases. The overall relative risk for the highest versus lowest category of chocolate consumption was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.97), with little heterogeneity among studies (I(2)=24.3%).
Chocolate consumption is associated with lower risk of MI and ischaemic heart disease.
BACKGROUND: A decreased risk for cardiovascular disease has been related to the hardness of drinking water, particularly high levels of magnesium. However, the evidence is still uncertain, especially in relation to individual intake from water. METHODS: We used data from the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, a population-based case-control study conducted during 1992-1994, to study the association between myocardial infarction and the daily intake of drinking water magnesium and calcium. Our analyses are based on 497 cases age 45-70 years, and 677 controls matched on age, sex, and hospital catchment area. Individual data on magnesium, calcium, and hardness of the domestic drinking water were assessed from waterwork registers or analyses of well water. RESULTS: After adjustment for the matching variables and smoking, hypertension, socioeconomic status, job strain, body mass index, diabetes, and physical inactivity, the odds ratio for myocardial infarction was 1.09 (95% confidence interval = 0.81-1.46) associated with a tap water hardness above the median (>4.4 German hardness degrees) and 0.88 (0.67-1.15) associated with a water magnesium intake above the median (>1.86 mg/d). There was no apparent sign of any exposure-response pattern related to water intake of magnesium or calcium. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not support previous reports of a protective effect on myocardial infarction associated with consumption of drinking water with higher levels of hardness, magnesium, or calcium.
A beneficial effect of a high n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake has been observed in heart failure patients, who are frequently insulin resistant. We investigated the potential influence of impaired glucose metabolism on the relation between dietary intake of n-3 LCPUFAs and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with coronary artery disease.
This prospective cohort study was based on the Western Norway B-Vitamin Intervention Trial and included 2,378 patients with coronary artery disease with available baseline glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and dietary data. Patients were sub-grouped as having no diabetes (HbA1c
Foods rich in antioxidants have been associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction. However, findings from randomized clinical trials on the role of antioxidant supplementation remain controversial. It has been suggested that antioxidants interact with each other to promote cardiovascular health. We therefore investigated the association between dietary Non Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity (NEAC), measuring the total antioxidant potential of the whole diet, and the risk of myocardial infarction. We followed 45,882 women aged 30-49 years and free from cardiovascular diseases through record linkages from 1991 until 2012. Dietary NEAC was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire collected at baseline. Total dietary NEAC was categorized into quintiles and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). During a mean follow-up time of 20.3 years we detected 657 incident cases of myocardial infarction. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found a significant 28% lower risk of myocardial infarction among women in the fourth (HR: 0.72; 95% CI 0.55-0.95) and a 40% lower risk among women in the fifth quintile (HR: 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.81) of dietary NEAC compared to women in the first quintile, with a significant trend (p-value