OBJECTIVE: A common polymorphism (-1C to T) in the translation initiation sequence of annexin A5 (ANV) gene has recently been associated with a decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between the ANV genepolymorphism and the risk of AMI and ischemic sudden cardiac death (SCD) in middle-aged Finnish males. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control study involving three distinct groups of subjects was carried out: (1) victims of SCD (n=98), (2) survivors of AMI (n=212), and (3) randomly selected control subjects without any history of coronary heart disease (n=243). The ANV polymorphism was genotyped in each study group. RESULTS: Among the control group of healthy Finnish males the prevalence rates of the CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 83.1%, 15.2%, and 1.6%, respectively. Among the survivors of AMI, the prevalence rates of CC, CT, and TT were 79.7%, 20.3%, and 0%, respectively, and among the victims of SCD 83.7%, 16.3%, and 0%, respectively. No significant differences in the genotype or allele distributions were observed between the study groups. CONCLUSION: The -1C to T polymorphism in the ANV gene is not associated with the risk of AMI or SCD in middle-aged Finnish males.
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested that abnormal levels of cortisol and testosterone might increase the risk of serious somatic diseases. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a 5-year follow-up study in middle-aged men. METHODS: A population-based cohort study conducted in 1995 amongst 141 Swedish men born in 1944, in whom a clinical examination supplemented by medical history aimed to disclose the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke), type 2 diabetes and hypertension were performed at baseline and at follow-up in the year 2000. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were measured repeatedly over the day. Serum testosterone concentrations were also determined. Using the baseline data, an algorithm was constructed, which classified the secretion pattern of cortisol and testosterone from each individual as being normal or abnormal. RESULTS: By the end of follow-up, men with an abnormal hormone secretion pattern (n = 73) had elevated mean arterial pressure (P = 0.003), fasting insulin (P = 0.009) and insulin : glucose ratio (P = 0.005) compared with men with a normal secretion pattern (n = 68). Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist : hip ratio were significantly elevated in both groups. However, the 5-year incidence of CVD, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension were significantly higher (P
A six-year prospective study of 3775 individuals, first examined in 1978, using an original mathematical program of myocardial infarction risk prognosis, is reported. The program is based on an integral assessment of 19 risk factors, each having 4 degrees of severity. The subjects were allocated to one of 3 groups, depending on the prognostic risk score. In the low coronary risk group (2068 people), there was 1 (0.048%) myocardial infarction over 6 years. There were 12 (0.76%) infarctions in the medium risk group (1569 people), and 62 (44.92%) infarctions in the high risk group (138 people). Therefore, the program is capable of identifying a limited (about 4%) population that is going to develop 80% of all myocardial infarctions within the next 5 or 6 years.
Changes in the incidence of myocardial infarction, and associated mortality and lethality rates are reviewed over a 8-year period in an Novosibirsk district. Data on late postinfarction outcomes, obtained in a WHO-sponsored study, "Acute myocardial infarction register", are also presented. The incidence, mortality and lethality rates are showing a stabilization trend at present; in late outcomes, the greatest mortality and lethality rates fall to the first postinfarction year.
The data on the studies using WHO programs "Register of Acute Myocardial Infarction", "Register of Brain Apoplexy", "MONICA" in one of the districts of Novosibirsk have been pooled and analyzed. The studies have established objective trends in the incidence, mortality, lethality of myocardial infarction and brain apoplexy in the population aged 25-64 for 10 years.
Are absenteeism indicators usefull as predictor of serious morbidity in a working population? To seek an answer was the objective of a double case-control study carried out in a large company (17000 workers) of Quebec Province. In the first study, 64 cases of myocardial infarction (incidence density = 1.66% +/- 0.35) were compared with 64 controls matched for sex, age and type of work. In the second one, 142 cases of labor accident were compared with 142 controls sampled in a similar way. Absenteeism frequency and length were analysed during the period of 6 to 12 years prior to the onset of the health problem. Ratios were calculated on an individual basis for all causes of absence and for sick leave; they were adjusted for length of service. A four classes interval scale was used for the comparison. An excess of absence length exists in the two studies. The excess is not significant for the myocardial infarction cases (+ 33%, with a statistical power = 51%). It is significant for the labor accident cases (+ 52%, p less than 0.01). The corresponding odds ratio calculated in reference to the lowest absence group were 2.4 (0.9-6.6) and 2.7 (1.5-4.9). The cumulative absence length can be considered as a predictor of serious disease. A conceptual framework of the relationship between absence and natural disease history is presented. The epidemiological approach to the phenomenon of absence is certainly usefull in spite of the controversy underlined by the social sciences.
BACKGROUND: To do a gender comparison of absolute risk of recurrent myocardial infarction (MI). DESIGN: Registration of all first and second MI amongst Icelandic males and females 1981-1999. METHODS: The whole of Icelandic population, 40-74 years of age. RESULTS: The mean recurrence rate (second attack) for men was 45.7/1000 MI survivors/year and for women 39.0/1000 per year. The male/female (M/F) ratio was 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.37, P = 0.05 and did not change significantly with age. The M/F ratio for first MI in comparison was two to seven, lowest in the oldest group. The recurrence rate decreased significantly and similarly in both sexes during the observation period. CONCLUSION: The absolute risk of MI is closely similar amongst both sexes and has decreased similarly suggesting that the same kind of secondary intervention is effective amongst both sexes in a general population.
AIMS: Very few studies indicating that low-moderate alcohol consumption protects from myocardial infarction (MI) controlled for social support and working conditions, which could confound the findings. Therefore, a first aim was to study the risk of non-fatal and total MI in relation to volume of alcohol consumption and measures of social support and working conditions. A second aim was to analyse the impact of the volume of earlier alcohol use in abstainers. DESIGN: Data came from a case-control study, the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP), including first MI among Swedish citizens 45-70 years old. SETTING: Stockholm County 1992-94. PARTICIPANTS: There were 1095 cases of MI in men and 471 in women (928 and 372 were non-fatal), and 2339 living controls from the general population. MEASUREMENT: Information about alcohol use at different periods in life and job strain, social anchorage and life control besides pre-existing health problems, smoking, physical activity, socio-economic status and marital status was obtained by a questionnaire from the cases and the controls. FINDINGS: In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the relative risk for MI (especially non-fatal) was reduced among alcohol consumers. RR for non-fatal MI was 0.52 (95% confidence intervals 0.32, 0.85) in men with a consumption of 50-69.9 g 100% ethanol/day and 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.06, 0.77) in women with a consumption of 30 g or more per day (reference category 0.1-5 g 100% ethanol/day). Men who were abstainers during the previous 1-10 years and with an earlier average consumption of 5-30 g 100% ethanol/day had a significantly lower relative risk compared to such abstainers with an earlier higher consumption. Earlier consumption among abstainers may also have an impact on gender differences in MI. Analyses showed positive interaction between abstention and low life-control in women, but only 4% of the female cases were due to this interaction. There were no other interactions between measures of alcohol use and social anchorage, life control and working situations. CONCLUSION: Alcohol use had a protective impact on MI, with little impact of job strain, social anchorage and life control, giving increased support for a protective impact of low-moderate alcohol use. The level of previous alcohol consumption among male 1-10-year-long abstainers influenced the risk of MI.