We performed a retrospective cohort study, investigating the clinical outcomes including mortality and cardiovascular disease of sitagliptin compared with metformin monotherapies.
All patients receiving monotherapy with the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors (DPP-IV) inhibitor sitagliptin between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 were identified. All-cause mortality and a composite endpoint of stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and all-cause mortality associated with sitagliptin monotherapy were compared with metformin monotherapy. In addition, as an indicator of efficacy we analysed the hazard ratio of changing treatment.
A total of 84?756 patients were included in the analysis, 1228 (1.4%) received sitagliptin monotherapy whereas the remaining 83?528 (98.6%) patients received metformin monotherapy. Patients using metformin were younger than patients using sitagliptin (59.0?±?15.2 vs. 62.5?±?13.1) were less often male (51.6 vs. 54.2%) and had longer treatment duration with monotherapy (1.8?±?1.3 vs. 0.9?±?1.1?years). Compared with patients receiving metformin, patients using sitagliptin showed no statistically significant excess risks of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.92-1.71; p?=?0.153] or the composite endpoint (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.92-1.61; p?=?0.164). However, the use of sitagliptin monotherapy was associated with an increased likelihood of changing treatment (hazard ratio, 4.88; 95% CI, 4.46-5.35; p?
A number of epidemiological surveys have recently established that in populations with the lowest levels of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDLC) death rates grow due to both malignant and cardiovascular diseases. The results of a detailed study on multifactor prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in an open population of Moscow males aged 40-59 to elucidate the relations between TC, HDL cholesterol, LDLC and CHD mortality demonstrated that low levels of TC are markers, but not a factor of CHD and sudden death risk in low-educated subjects free of CHD symptoms. When planning mass measures to primarily prevent CHD, subjects with low cholesterol levels should be given a special care as well as those with hypercholesterolemia.
PURPOSE: The thyroid hormone system may be downregulated temporarily in patients who are severely ill. This "euthyroid sick syndrome" may be an adaptive response to conserve energy. However, thyroid hormone also has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, such as improving cardiac function, reducing systemic vascular resistance, and lowering serum cholesterol levels. We investigated whether thyroid hormone levels obtained at the time of myocardial infarction are associated with subsequent mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum levels of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine [T3], reverse T3, free thyroxine [T4], and thyroid-stimulating hormone) were measured in 331 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (mean age [+/- SD], 68 +/- 12 years), from samples obtained at the time of admission. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients (16%) died within 1 year. Ten percent (16 of 165) of patients with reverse T3 levels (an inactive metabolite) >0.41 nmol/L (the median value) died within the first week after myocardial infarction, compared with none of the 166 patients with lower levels (P 0.41 nmol/L were associated with an increased risk of 1-year mortality (hazard ratio = 3.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.4 to 6.3; P = 0.005), independent of age, previous myocardial infarction, prior angina, heart failure, serum creatinine level, and peak serum creatine kinase-MB fraction levels. CONCLUSION: Determination of reverse T3 levels may be a valuable and simple aid to improve identification of patients with myocardial infarction who are at high risk of subsequent mortality.
OBJECTIVE--To examine association of different measures of serum lipid concentration and obesity with mortality in women. DESIGN--Prospective observational study initiated in 1968-9, follow up examination after 12 years, and follow up study based on death certificates after 20 years. SETTING--Gothenburg, Sweden. SUBJECTS--1462 randomly selected women aged 38-60 at start of study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Total mortality and death from myocardial infarction as predicted by serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, body mass index, and ratio of circumference of waist to circumference of hips. RESULTS--170 women died during follow up, 26 from myocardial infarction. Serum triglyceride concentration and waist:hip ratio were significantly associated with both end points (relative risk of total mortality for highest quarter of triglyceride concentration v lower three quarters 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.30 to 2.67); relative risk for waist:hip ratio 1.67 (1.18 to 2.36)). These associations remained after adjustment for background variables. Serum cholesterol concentration and body mass index were initially associated with death from myocardial infarction, but association was lost after adjustment for background variables. Serum triglyceride concentration and waist:hip ratio were independently predictive of both end points (logistic regression coefficient for total mortality for triglyceride 0.514 (SE 0.150), p = 0.0006; coefficient for waist:hip ratio 7.130 (1.92), p = 0.0002) whereas the other two risk factors were not (coefficient for total mortality for cholesterol concentration -0.102 (0.079), p = 0.20; coefficient for body mass index -0.051 (0.027), p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--Lipid risk profile appears to be different in men and women given that serum triglyceride concentration was an independent risk factor for mortality while serum cholesterol concentration was not. Consistent with previous observations in men, localisation of adipose tissue was more important than obesity per se as risk factor in women.
Cardiac troponins have emerged as the preferred biomarkers for detecting myocardial necrosis and diagnosing myocardial infarction. However, current cardiac troponin assays do not discriminate between ischemic and nonischemic causes of myocardial cell death. Thus, when an increased troponin value is encountered in the absence of obvious myocardial ischemia, a careful search for other clinical conditions is crucial.
In 2010 to 2011, we prospectively studied hospitalized patients who had cardiac troponin I measured on clinical indication. An acute myocardial infarction was diagnosed in cases of a cardiac troponin I increase or decrease pattern with at least 1 value >30 ng/L (99th percentile) together with myocardial ischemia. Myocardial injury was defined as cardiac troponin I values >30 ng/L, but without signs or symptoms indicating overt cardiac ischemia. Patients with peak values =30 ng/L were classified as nonelevated cardiac troponin I. Follow-up was at least 3 years with all-cause mortality as the sole clinical end point.
A total of 3762 patients were included. Of these, 488 (13%) had acute myocardial infarction, 1089 (29%) had myocardial injury, and 2185 (58%) had nonelevated cardiac troponin I values. Patients with myocardial injury frequently presented with dyspnea, were older, and had more comorbidity than patients in the 2 other groups. During a median follow-up of 3.2 years, 1342 patients died. Mortality differed significantly between groups: 39% in those with myocardial infarction, 59% in those with myocardial injury, and 23% in those with nonelevated cardiac troponin I (log-rank test; P
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease mortality in Norway during the last 50 years has been analysed and related to changes in dietary habits and serum cholesterol in the population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mortality and dietary data have been collected from official statistics. Changes in serum cholesterol have been estimated from changes in intake of fatty acids based on published regression equations. Data on changes in serum cholesterol and blood pressure are from the former National Health Screening Service. RESULTS: Mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) peaked in 1966-70 when it was 100% higher than in 1951-55 for men and 50% higher for women. For age group 40-69 years mortality has been reduced by more than one half during the last 30 years. For the period 1996-2000 and for all age groups, 30,903 fewer deaths occurred than expected, had the mortality remained the same as during 1971-75, that is 6180 per year. Mortality from sudden death has followed the same pattern as for IHD. Cerebrovascular disease mortality has shown a declining tendency during the entire period. Since 1960 the proportion of total fat in the diet has been reduced from 41 to 34% of energy and the proportion of unsaturated to saturated plus trans fatty acids has increased. Cholesterol in the diet has been reduced by almost one half. Based on changes in consumption in milk fat, fat from meat and margarine, and taken into consideration the change from boiled to filtered coffee the estimated reduction in serum cholesterol in the population is in the order of 0.8 mmol/l. This corresponds closely to the observed 0.5 to 1 mmol/l. Most of the reduction is due to changes in milk fat and margarine consumption and composition. INTERPRETATION: Based on the established relation between serum cholesterol and risk of IHD we conclude that reduction in serum cholesterol may explain most of the decline in mortality since 1970. Other factors that may have contributed are reduced smoking (in men), a small reduction in blood pressure, increased consumption of fruit, vegetables, cod liver - and fish oil and better means of treatment.
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 Aug 26;124(16):2153; author reply 215315334142
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 Oct 7;124(19):251715477904
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2005 Feb 17;125(4):47015742038
The diagnosis of myocardial necrosis in patients with chronic renal failure is often difficult because biochemical markers of cardiac damage such as creatine kinase MB (CKMB) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) may be spuriously elevated. Recent small studies also report unexplained elevations in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in chronic renal failure patients undergoing hemodialysis. The relative incidence of elevated cardiac troponins in this population and their relationship to clinical events remain unknown.
To determine the incidence and prognostic significance of asymptomatic elevations of cTnT and cTnI in patients undergoing hemodialysis for chronic renal failure.
Prospective cohort study.
University tertiary care teaching hospital.
One hundred thirteen patients over 21 years of age undergoing onsite hemodialysis were enrolled between December 1997 and February 1998.
All-cause and cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina or congestive heart failure, new onset sustained arrhythmia or need for unscheduled emergency hemodialysis due to volume overload at 30 days and six months.
The incidence of abnormal results for cTnT, cTnI and CKMB were 42%, 15% and 4%, respectively. Independent predictors of mortality at six months were median age greater than 63 years (odds ratio 14.3, 95% CI 1.5 to 130.3, P=0.019) and positive cTnT (odds ratio 13.6, 95% CI 2.5 to 73.2, P=0.002). Diabetics were more likely to have positive cTnI and cTnT results than nondiabetics (P
Comment In: Can J Cardiol. 2003 Dec;19(13):1545-6; author reply 154614763460
To develop improved prognostic algorithms for routine bedside use in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the prognostic value concerning 2- and 12-month mortality of an early (within 72 hours after AMI) resting echocardiogram was defined in 201 consecutive patients. The relation between (1) the clinical variables (age, sex, prior and repeat AMI, arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, early [less than 72 hours after AMI] and late heart failure, early and maximal in-hospital Killip class, and maximal creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme), (2) early myocardial performance by echocardiography, and (3) mortality was characterized by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and receiver-operating characteristic curves based on Cox regression model. Only age and clinical heart failure in terms of the maximal in-hospital Killip class had independent predictive value of death (p less than 0.05) when an early echocardiographic estimate of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was included in the multivariate statistical models. The following 2 optimized algorithms for admission and predischarge calculation of risk of mortality at 2 and 12 months were developed based on the Cox model, using combinations of age, maximal Killip class and early echocardiographic LVEF: mortality at 2 months = 1 - exp - [0.051 x exp [0.044 x (age -60) - (0.117 x (LVEF - 40)]]; and mortality at 1 year = 1 - exp - [0.101 x exp [0.408 x (maxKillip - 1) - (0.061 x (LVEF - 40)]]. Discriminative power for prediction of mortality of the predischarge algorithm in an independent population of 195 patients 5 days after AMI compared favorably with that obtained in the original population, confirming the validity of the proposed method of prognostication.
The object of this study is to analyse the trends in coronary events in Finland during 1993-2002, correcting for the effect of troponins.
A population-based myocardial infarction register recorded all coronary events (n=14 782) in four geographical areas of Finland during 1993-2002. Correction coefficients for the effect of troponins were calculated on the basis of 4359 coronary events, with simultaneous determination of troponins and the 'old' enzymatic markers of myocardial injury. Coronary mortality declined steeply, except in women aged > or = 75 years. The incidence of first coronary events declined 2.0% (95% confidence interval -3.0, -0.9%) per year among men and 1.0% (-2.7, 0.6%) per year among women aged 35-74 years. After correcting for the effect of troponins, also the decline among women became statistically significant: 2.7% (-4.5, -0.8%) per year. The effect of troponins tended to be stronger in women and older individuals than in men and younger individuals. The 28-day case fatality declined among men, but not among women. The effect of troponins on case fatality trends was weak.
Declining trends in the incidence of coronary events in Finland during 1993-2002 were partly hidden by the effect of troponins. Both incidence and case fatality declines have contributed to the decline in mortality.
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 2006 Oct;27(20):2373-517000625