The incidence of cardiovascular events remains high in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) despite advances in current therapies. New and better methods for identifying patients at high risk of recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events are needed. This study aimed to analyze the predictive value of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in patients with acute myocardial infarction without known diabetes mellitus (DM).
The prospective cohort study consisted of 123 men and women aged between 31-80 years who had suffered a previous MI 3-12 months before the examinations. The exclusion criteria were known diabetes mellitus. Patients were followed up over 6.03???1.36 years for CV death, recurrent MI, stroke and unstable angina pectoris. A standard OGTT was performed at baseline.
We tested the hypothesis that reduced plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D associates with increased risk of ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and early death.
We measured baseline plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 10 170 women and men from the Danish general population without vitamin D-fortified food. During 29 years of follow-up, 3100 persons developed ischemic heart disease, 1625 myocardial infarction, and 6747 died. Decreasing plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were associated with increasing risk of ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and early death as a function of seasonally adjusted percentile categories (P for trend, 2×10(-4)-3×10(-53)). Comparing individuals with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at the 1st to 4th percentile with individuals with levels at the 50th to 100th percentile, the multivariable adjusted risk was increased by 40% (95% CI, 14%-72%) for ischemic heart disease, by 64% (25%-114%) for myocardial infarction, by 57% (38%-78%) for early death, and by 81% (40%-135%) for fatal ischemic heart disease/myocardial infarction. In the meta-analyses of 18 and 17 studies, risk of ischemic heart disease and early death were increased by 39% (25%-54%) and 46% (31%-64%) for lowest versus highest quartile of 25-hydroxyvitamin D level.
We observed increasing risk of ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and early death with decreasing plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. These findings were substantiated in meta-analyses.
The study sought to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in ABCG5/8, the transporter responsible for intestinal and hepatobiliary cholesterol efflux, may simultaneously influence plasma and biliary cholesterol levels, and hence risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and gallstone disease in opposite directions.
High plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are a causal risk factor for MI, whereas high levels of biliary cholesterol promote gallstone formation.
A total of 60,239 subjects from Copenhagen were included, including 5,647 with MI and 3,174 with symptomatic gallstone disease. Subjects were genotyped for 6 common, nonsynonymous and functional variants in ABCG5/8, and a combined weighted genotype score was calculated.
Combined, weighted genotype scores were associated with stepwise decreases in LDL cholesterol of up to 5.9% (0.20 mmol/l) for individuals with a score =8.0 (prevalence = 11%) versus
Comment In: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 May 27;63(20):2129-3024657684
BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and unknown type 2-diabetes in patients with coronary heart disease and no previous diagnosis of diabetes have been reported. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) 3 months after an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients without known glucometabolic disturbance, to evaluate the reliability of a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed very early after an acute STEMI to predict the presence of AGR at 3 months, and to study other potential predictors measured in-hospital for AGR at 3 months. METHODS: This was an observational cohort study prospectively enrolling 224 STEMI patients treated with primary PCI. An OGTT was performed very early after an acute STEMI and was repeated in 200 patients after 3 months. We summarised the exact agreement observed, and assessed the observed reproducibility of the OGTTs performed in-hospital and at follow up. The patients were classified into glucometabolic categories defined according to the World Health Organisation criteria. AGR was defined as the sum of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2-diabetes. RESULTS: The prevalence of AGR at three months was 24.9% (95% CI 19.1, 31.4%), reduced from 46.9% (95% CI 40.2, 53.6) when measured in-hospital. Only, 108 of 201 (54%) patients remained in the same glucometabolic category after a repeated OGTT. High levels of HbA1c and admission plasma glucose in-hospital significantly predicted AGR at 3 months (p
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that long-term occupational exposure to airborne pollutants is a stronger risk factor for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in men with blood type O than in men with other ABO phenotypes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective study taking into account potential confounders. SETTING: The Copenhagen Male Study. SUBJECTS: 3321 men aged 53-74 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Lifetime prevalence of myocardial infarction and incidence of IHD in an 8-year follow-up among men without overt cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: Among men with phenotypes other than O no association was found between airborne pollutant exposure and IHD risk. Among men with blood type O (P = 1417, 42%), 4.7% had a history of myocardial infarction, as compared with 5.7% among men with other phenotypes (P = 1904, 58%). Long-term occupational exposure (> 5 years of exposure) to various airborne pollutants: soldering fumes, welding fumes and plastic fumes was associated with a significantly increased lifetime prevalence of myocardial infarction. Odds ratios (95% confidence limits) for these factors were 3.0 (1.6-5.8), P = 0.002, 2.1 (1.05-4.2), P = 0.05, and 8.3 (2.6-27.0), P = 0.003. In an 8-year follow-up a similar though weaker association was found with a significantly increased risk for those exposed long term to soldering fumes: 1.8 (1.0-3.2), P = 0.05. CONCLUSION: The finding of a quite strong interplay between airborne pollutants, ABO phenotypes, and risk of IHD, may open up new possibilities for clarifying the roles of the ABO blood group and air pollution as cardiovascular risk factors.
We investigated whether serum concentrations of apolipoprotein (apo) B and apoA-I and the apoB/apoA-I ratio provided predictive information on myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke during 13 years of follow-up in a group of initially clinically healthy 58-year-old men, free from previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes, other established disease, or treatment with cardiovascular drugs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the apoB/apoA-I ratio and apoB were significant and independent determinants of MI (exponentiation of the B coefficient [Exp(?)] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-6.3, P=.001, Exp(?) 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.7, P=.045, respectively). The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve as a relative measure of test efficiency was highest and significant for both apoB/apoA-I ratio and apoB (area under the curve=0.75, P
In a previous report, a large regional variation was reported in total mortality and mortality rate from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in mid-Sweden. In this report, IHD prevalence and risk factor data are presented. A postal questionnaire was sent out to a random sample of men aged 45-64 years in each of 40 communities. 14,675 men (88%) responded. Based on a validity study, IHD cases were defined as those with a history of myocardial infarction and/or angina pectoris. Age, smoking habits, antihypertensive treatment, body mass index, food habits, stress and physical activity during leisure time were used as risk factors. IHD prevalence showed the same geographical variation as IHD mortality, with a low prevalence in the east and a high prevalence in the west. There was a moderate variation in risk factor levels over the 40 communities. When this variation was taken into account the geographical IHD variation was somewhat smaller but still substantial. Other factors may involve socio-economics, drinking water qualities, mineral soil content or other environmental factors. Which of these cause the largest IHD variation is at present unknown, but is subject to systematic examination in this project.
A case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between serum selenium and risk of death from acute coronary heart disease (CHD) as well as risk of fetal and non-fetal myocardial infarction (MI). Case-control pairs came from a population of 11,000 persons examined in 1972 from two counties in eastern Finland, an area with an exceptionally high mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Cases were aged 35-59 years and had died of CHD or other CVD or had a non-fetal MI during a seven-year follow-up. Controls were matched for sex, age, daily tobacco consumption, serum cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, and history of angina pectoris. The mean serum selenium concentration for all cases was 51.8 micrograms/l and for all controls 55.3 micrograms/l (p less than 0.01). Serum selenium of less than 45 micrograms/l was associated with an adjusted relative risk of CHD death of 2.9 (p less than 0.01, 95% CI, 1.4-6.0), a relative risk of CVD death of 2.2 (p less than 0.01, 95% CI, 1.2-4.0), and a relative risk of fatal and nonfatal MI of 2.1 (p less than 0.001, 95% Ci, 1.4-3.1). 22% (95% CI, 8-35%) of contrary deaths were attributable to serum selenium in the whole study population.
Previous epidemiological studies have shown positive associations between serum calcium concentration and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but results differ by definition of CVD. We examined the association of circulating calcium with incident and fatal CVD, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke in the Swedish AMORIS cohort.
We included 441,738 participants of the AMORIS database linked for follow-up information on morbidity and mortality. Concentrations of total calcium were fully automated measured using a colorimetric method; concentrations of albumin were measured with a bromocresol green method between 1985 and 1995. The association of albumin-corrected calcium concentration and risk of incident and fatal CVD, MI, and stroke, respectively, was assessed with multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models.
Until December 31, 2011, during a median follow-up time of 21 years, 90,866 incident cases of CVD, 21,271 of MI, and 25,810 of stroke were identified. High serum calcium concentrations were associated with increased risk of non-fatal CVD (Hazard ratio [HR] = 1.12, 95% CI 1.10-1.14, top [=2.40 nmol/L] vs. bottom [=2-25 nmol/L] quintile), MI (1.19, 1.14-1.25), and stroke (1.11, 1.06-1.15) and fatal disease (CVD: 1.41, 1.35-1.47; MI: 1.41, 1.31-1.51; stroke: 1.30, 1.20-1.41). Effect modification by sex was observed for incident disease such that associations were stronger among women than men. Serum calcium was positively associated with both incident and fatal ischemic stroke and with fatal hemorrhagic stroke, but not with incident hemorrhagic stroke. In a sub-groups analysis, the results remained significant after adjustment for smoking.
The results support a modest positive association between serum calcium and risk of CVD, but the underlying mineral metabolism and the exact mechanisms are currently unclear.
High body iron stores have been proposed as a risk factor for advanced atherosclerosis. We investigated the prevalence of early atherosclerotic changes, and their relation to conventional CHD risk factors and body iron status. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 206 men aged 50 to 60 years (6% random population sample). Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery was evaluated with high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Statistical analyses were performed separately for men with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among all the study participants, 6.6% had IMT > 1.3 mm in the common carotid artery, whereas 53.8% had IMT > 1.5 mm in the carotid bifurcation. Respective values were 4.8% and 46.8% for those without CVD, and 8.5% and 62.2% for those with CVD. Mean IMT in the carotid bifurcation, the predilection site for atherosclerosis, was 1.85 mm (95% CI 1.72; 1.98) in the men with CVD, as compared to 1.65 mm (95% CI 1.56; 1.73) in the men free of CVD. Serum LDL cholesterol (beta = 0.26), saturated fat intake (beta = 0.20), blood haemoglobin (beta = -0.29), systolic blood pressure (beta = 0.21) and smoking (beta = 0.19), jointly explained 23% of the variance in the carotid bifurcation IMT in the men without CVD. Neither serum ferritin, transferrin nor dietary iron levels were associated with carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. On the other hand, in the men with CVD, age (beta = 0.34) and physical activity (beta = -0.25) jointly explained 16.5% of the IMT variance in the carotid bifurcation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)