Fusarium roseum 'Graminearum' was isolated from overwintered oats in Alaska and was tested for its ability to cause tibial dyschondroplasia (TDP) in broiler chickens. The water-soluble fraction was tested and found to cause TDP. In addition, diacetoxyscirpenol and 7-hydroxydiacetoxyscirpenol were identified in the acetonitrile fraction of the extracts and caused mild mouth lesions in chickens. Six major water-soluble components were purified by thin-layer chromatography and tested for toxicity to chick embryos. One of the six components, called TDP-1, was found to be lethal to chick embryos. There was a 100% incidence of TDP in chickens fed a diet containing 75 ppm (wt/wt) of pure TDP-1, thus establishing the cause and effect relationship between TDP and TDP-1. Analyses by thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed that TDP-1 is polar and ninhydrin positive, exhibits fluorescence with UV irradiation, and is a nitrogen-containing component with an empirical formula of C15H20N2O4.