This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
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Acquired equine polyneuropathy (AEP), formerly also known as Scandinavian knuckling syndrome, is one of the most prevalent polyneuropathies in equids in Norway and Sweden, with more than 400 cases registered since first observations in 1995. Despite geographical clustering and an association to forage feeding, its aetiology remains unknown. Clinically AEP is characterized by knuckling due to dysfunction of metatarsophalangeal extensor muscles. This neuropathological study aimed to gain further insights in the pathobiology of AEP and its underlying aetiopathogenesis. We thereby confirmed that all affected horses suffered from similar large fibre neuropathy, exhibiting conspicuous Schwann cell inclusions in most samples, suggestive of a primary disruption of Schwann cell metabolism leading to inclusion body schwannopathy with secondary inflammatory changes. The degree of nerve pathology was not predictive of clinical outcome.
PURPOSE: The purpose is to study the age trajectory of hand-grip strength after the age of 45 years. METHODS: In this study, we use data from three large nationwide population-based surveys of Danes aged 45 to 102 years with a total of 8342 participants with grip-strength measurements and up to 4 years of follow-up. Grip strength was measured by using a portable hand dynamometer. RESULTS: Grip strength declines throughout life for both males and females, but among the oldest women, the longitudinal curve reaches a horizontal plateau. The course of the decline is estimated by using full information in the longitudinal data and is found to be almost linear in the age span of 50 to 85 years. In this age span, mean annual grip-strength loss is estimated to be 0.59 (0.02) (SE) kg for men and 0.31 (0.01) kg for women. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the previously reported grip-strength decline with increasing age. Estimates were obtained by using full-information methods from large population-representative studies. Equations of expected grip strength, as well as tables with sex-, age-, and height-stratified reference data, provide an opportunity to include grip-strength measurement in clinical care in similar populations.
Competitive rhythmic sportive gymnastics have been accused of promoting an unphysiologic weight reduction which may progress to manifest anorexia nervosa. In this study, eight young female gymnasts who represented Norway in the European Championships in Rhythmic Sportive Gymnastics 1982 were examined for evidence of malnutrition. Ten girls, matched for age and height, served as controls. The examination included registration of anthropometric data (height, weight, and body-mass index), motor and sensory neurography and biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle with exact measurements of muscle fibre areas on sections stained for myofibrillar ATPase activity. The mean body weight of the gymnasts did not differ from that of the control group or of a large series of age matched Norwegian females. This finding excludes the possibility of general malnutrition among the examined gymnasts. Muscle fibres of both types 1 and 2 were found to be smaller in the gymnasts than in the controls, with values of 3,404 microns2 vs 3,811 microns2 for type-1 fibres and 2,985 microns2 vs 3,942 microns2 for type-2 fibres respectively. Although contradictory to most previous reports, this finding suggests that the reduction in fibre size among the gymnasts might be an effect of physical training. There were some differences in neurographic parameters between the groups, but the mean values were all within normal ranges. The motor nerve conduction velocity in the proximal segments of the median and ulnar nerves was significantly slower in the gymnasts and, as a possible consequence of smaller muscle fibres, the motor responses were generally less in this group.
To evaluate the association between signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and psychological distress in a general population-based sample of Finnish adults.
The Health 2000 Survey was conducted in 2000-2001 by the National Institute for Health and Welfare in Finland. Of the sample of adults aged 30 or over (n=8,028), 79% participated in a clinical oral health examination, which included examination of TMD signs. The participants (n=6,155) also completed questionnaires, including the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which measured psychological distress. Associations between TMD signs and psychological distress measured by the GHQ-12 were examined in both genders. Statistical measures included chi-square tests, t tests, and logistic regression analyses.
The prevalence of the TMD signs (limited opening, clicking, crepitation, temporomandibular joint [TMJ] palpation pain, and muscle palpation pain) was 11.2%, 17.6%, 10.5%, 5.1%, and 18.9% in women, and 6.1%, 12.9%, 5.3%, 2.4%, and 7.2% in men, respectively. High GHQ-12 scores, measured as continuous variables and in quartiles by distress level, were significantly associated with masticatory muscle pain on palpation in both genders (P
Ancient remains preserved in glaciers present a unique opportunity for us to advance our knowledge of human origins, diversity, and health, a central focus of anthropological studies. Cellular components of hard and soft tissue from frozen human remains dated between 1670 to 1850 cal AD recovered from a glacier in Canada were studied. Despite the expected ice crystal damage in some samples, regions of recognizable structure and ultrastructure were observed. We found that the state of preservation was tissue specific and that in some tissues the organelles were better preserved than in others. Skeletal, connective, nervous, and epithelial tissues were recognizable in some of the samples. DNA had been previously extracted from these remains and this study illustrates that the ability to successfully extract DNA may correlate with good preservation of histology.
The aim was to study changes in the main masticatory muscles after mandibular condyle fracture as seen by CT, comparing the densities and sizes of the masseter, medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid muscles on the fractured side with those on the non-fractured side. More or less permanent muscular changes are detectable several years after the accident, especially in the lateral pterygoid muscle, which is attached to the condylar head. This muscle was statistically significantly smaller (p less than 0.001) on the fractured side. Examination of the masticatory muscles immediately after the fracture and at intervals afterwards could reveal more about the pathogenesis of the changes in these muscles.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency of mitochondrial abnormalities in muscle histology, defects in respiratory chain enzyme activities, and mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in children with unexplained psychomotor retardation in the population of Northern Finland. BACKGROUND: The frequency of mitochondrial diseases among patients with childhood encephalopathies and myopathies is not known. Frequencies are difficult to estimate because the clinical presentation of these disorders is variable. METHODS: A total of 116 consecutive patients with undefined encephalopathies and myopathies were enrolled during a 7-year period in a hospital serving as the only neurologic unit for a pediatric population of 97 609 and as the only tertiary level neurologic unit for a pediatric population of 48 873. Biochemical and morphologic investigations were performed on muscle biopsy material, including oximetric and spectrophotometric analyses of oxidative phosphorylation, histochemistry, electron microscopy, and molecular analysis of mtDNA. RESULTS: Ultrastructural changes in the mitochondria were the most common finding in the muscle biopsies (71%). Ragged-red fibers were found in 4 cases. An oxidative phosphorylation defect was found in 26 children (28%), complex I (n = 15) and complex IV (n = 13) defects being the most common. Fifteen percent of patients (n = 17/116) with unexplained encephalomyopathy or myopathy had a probable mitochondrial disease. Common pathogenic mutations were found in the mtDNA of only 1 patient (.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The common known mutations in mtDNA are rarely causes of childhood encephalomyopathies, which is in contrast to the considerable frequency of the common MELAS mutation observed among adults in the same geographical area. Biochemically and morphologically verified mitochondrial disorders were nevertheless common among the children, making the analysis of a muscle biopsy very important for clinical diagnostic purposes.
OBJECTIVE: To compare physical characteristics of the cervical musculature, including maximal isometric strength of the flexors and extensors, relative isometric endurance of the extensors and the active range of motion (ROM) in extension in a group of patients seeking treatment for chronic neck pain and a group of age-matched healthy people. SETTING: Department of Medical Orthopedics, National University Hospital, Denmark. METHODS: One hundred and nineteen chronic neck-pain patients underwent physical testing for active ROM in extension, maximal isometric torque in extension and flexion and relative isometric endurance in extension before entering a clinical controlled trial studying the treatment of chronic neck pain. Their results were then compared with those of 80 age-matched healthy people. RESULTS: The reliability study demonstrated good within-day and day-to-day reproducibility for active ROM. Active ROM was significantly reduced in female patients, but not in all male age groups. Patients exhibited clinically and statistically significant reductions in maximal isometric torque in both the flexors and extensors of the cervical spine, with the greatest reduction seen in the extensor muscle group. Most patient groups demonstrated a significant reduction in relative isometric endurance of the extensors. CONCLUSIONS: In agreement with most low-back comparisons between patients and age-matched healthy people, the greatest relative muscular deficiencies seem to be in the extensor muscle group. Additionally, most patients exhibit a significant decrease in active ROM during extension. The clinical utility of physical measurements has not been firmly established.