Fighter pilots who are frequently exposed to severe cold ambient temperatures experience neck pain disabilities and occupational disorders more often than those who are not so exposed. We hypothesized that a cold-induced increase in muscle strain might lead to in-flight neck injuries. The aims of this study were to measure the level of cooling before takeoff and to determine muscle strain under Gz loading (0 to +4 Gz) at different temperatures.
Test subjects' (n = 14) skin temperature (T(skin)) over the trapezoids was measured before the walk to the aircraft and again in the cockpit (air temperature -14 degrees C). The subjects then performed trampoline exercises in two different ambient temperatures (-2 degrees C and +21 degrees C) after a 30-min period at the respective temperatures. EMG activity of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), cervical erector spinae (CES), trapezoid (TRA), thoracic erector spinae (TES) muscles, and Tskin of the SCM and TRA were measured.
Tskin over the trapezoids decreased from 30.1 +/- 1.7 degrees C to 27.8 +/- 2.6 degrees C (p
To analyze groin and abdominal strain injuries retrospectively among elite male hockey players in the National Hockey League (NHL) over six seasons of play (1991/92 to 1996/97).
Retrospective case series design.
The NHL participants were an inclusive sample of 7,050 NHL hockey players who played in the NHL from the 1991/92 to the 1996/97 seasons. A subset of 2,600 NHL hockey players who played from the 1995/96 to the 1996/97 seasons was further analyzed.
The injury definition for groin/abdominal strain injury included any injury recorded as a muscle strain injury involving a muscle in any of the abdominal, hip flexor, or hip adductor muscle groups. Femoral, abdominal, and inguinal hernias were also included. Cumulative incidence rates over six seasons of play in the NHL and incidence densities over two seasons of play in the NHL are reported. Specific injury parameters examined included muscle region, time in season, type of session, reinjury, time period in session, position of play, player's experience, mechanism of injury, and time loss.
A total of 617 groin/abdominal strain injuries were reported in the NHL over six seasons of play. The cumulative incidence rate in the NHL increased over 6 years of play from 12.99 injuries/100 players/year in the 1991/92 season to 19.87 injuries/100 players/year in the 1996/97 season. The rate of increase was 1.32 (95% confidence interval -0.58, 3.21) injuries/100 players/year. The incidence density of groin/abdominal injury during NHL training camp was five times that during the regular season and 20 times that during the postseason. The incidence density in the NHL during games was six times that during practice. The majority of injuries reported were adductor groin muscle strains. The proportion of injuries reported that were recurrent was 23.5%. There was no significant difference in proportion of injuries reported by time period within a session. The mechanism of injury recorded was noncontact in nature in >90% of injuries reported. Mean time loss due to injury was significantly greater for abdominal injuries (10.59 sessions) than for groin injuries (6.59 sessions). A conservative estimate of the impact of groin/abdominal injury on each NHL team is a game loss of 25 player games/year.
The impact of groin and abdominal strain injury at an elite level of play in hockey is significant and increasing. Future research in this area is needed to identify risk factors and potentially implement prevention strategies to reduce groin and abdominal strain injury at all levels of play.
Domestic violence is the most common cause of nonfatal injury to women in North America. In a review of 144 such injuries, the second most common manifestation of intimate partner violence was musculoskeletal injuries (28%). The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is explicit that orthopaedic surgeons should play a role in the screening and appropriate identification of victims. We aimed to identify the perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge of Canadian orthopaedic surgeons with regard to intimate partner violence.
We surveyed members of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association to identify attitudes toward intimate partner violence. With use of a systematic random sample, 362 surgeons were mailed questionnaires. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: (1) the general attitude of the orthopaedic surgeon toward intimate partner violence, (2) the attitude of the orthopaedic surgeon toward victims and batterers, and (3) the clinical relevance of intimate partner violence in orthopaedic surgery. Up to three follow-up mailings were performed to enhance response rates.
A total of 186 orthopaedic surgeons responded (a response rate of 51%), and 167 (91%) of them were men. Most orthopaedic surgeons (95%) estimated that
From 1970 to 1985, the total number of hospital admissions in Finland increased by 36 per cent, the number of admissions due to musculoskeletal disorders by 121 percent, and the admissions due to trauma by 38 percent. The combined share of musculoskeletal disorders and trauma in hospitals will grow to an estimated 18 percent of all the admissions by the year 2000. Of all the early pensions granted by the Social Insurance Institution, the share of musculoskeletal disorders as the main cause increased from 16 percent in 1970 to 25 percent in 1985.
Healthcare workers are at high risk for musculoskeletal injuries. A program was developed to decrease the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries and the duration of associated time loss.
A program combining primary prevention and on-site early intervention was implemented at a large, urban hospital. Incidence rates were compared using Poisson regression. Cox regression was used to analyze the time to return to regular duties.
Although there was no reduction in incidence, the program was effective in returning injured employees to work more promptly for registered nurses and health science professionals (therapists, technicians), although not for facility support staff.
Overall savings in time loss and compensation payments were realized. However, better integration of prevention and follow-up efforts are needed, and greater attention to the sociopolitical environment is required to improve outcomes for facility support staff.
PURPOSE: The aim of this human study was to apply novel topographical mapping techniques to investigate sensory and EMG manifestations of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in multiple locations of the quadriceps. METHODS: Bipolar surface EMG signals were recorded from 11 healthy men with 15 pairs of electrodes located at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% of the distance from the medial, superior, and lateral border of the patella to the anterior superior iliac spine. Subjects performed sustained isometric knee extensions at 40% of the maximal force (MVC) until task failure before, 24 h, and 48 h after eccentric exercise. Pressure-pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed at the 15 locations where the EMG was recorded. RESULTS: Time to task failure was reduced after the eccentric exercise (mean +/- SD, 56.6 +/- 23 s before the eccentric exercise; 34.3 +/- 18.9 s at 24 h after exercise; and 34.3 +/- 14.4 s at 48 h after exercise). During the postexercise sustained contractions, EMG average rectified value (ARV) significantly decreased over time (P
Exercise-induced muscle damage is a well-described consequence of strenuous exercise, but its potential importance in the evolution of animal activity patterns is unknown. We used plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity as an indicator of muscle damage to investigate whether the high intensity, long-duration flights of two migratory shorebird species cause muscle damage that must be repaired during stopover. In two years of study, plasma CK activity was significantly higher in migrating western sandpipers (a non-synchronous, short-hop migrant), than in non-migrants. Similarly, in the bar-tailed godwit (a synchronous, long-jump migrant), plasma CK activity was highest immediately after arrival from a 4000-5000km flight from West Africa to The Netherlands, and declined before departure for the arctic breeding areas. Late-arriving godwits had higher plasma CK activity than birds that had been at the stopover site longer. Juvenile western sandpipers making their first southward migration had higher plasma CK activity than adults. These results indicate that muscle damage occurs during migration, and that it is exacerbated in young, relatively untrained birds. However, the magnitude of the increases in plasma CK activity associated with migratory flight were relatively small, suggesting that the level of muscle damage is moderate. Migrants may avoid damage behaviourally, or have efficient biochemical and physiological defences against muscle injury.
By means of a questionnaire with a complementary interview and physical examination, the site and nature of sports injuries were investigated over a 10-year period (1977-1987) in 97 elderly athletes (age range 70-81 years). The athletes were still active in training and competition with a mean competition background of 15 years. Of the subjects studied 30 were strength/power athletes and the remaining 67 endurance athletes. Altogether we found 273 sports-related injuries (169 acute and 104 overuse injuries). Of the injuries 75% had occurred in the lower extremities. The most commonly injured part of the body was the knee (20% of all cases). Sprains of the thigh and knee were the most frequent types of acute injury. In most cases the treatment prescribed was rest and physiotherapy. Surgery had been necessary in ten cases (3.7% of all injuries). Mean withdrawal from normal sporting activity had, in general, been 2-3 weeks. Of the injuries, one in five had, however, lasted over several years causing some disability during sporting activities.