The alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene encodes a Z-disc structural protein which is found only in fast glycolytic muscle fibers. A common nonsense polymorphism in codon 577 of the ACTN3 gene (R577X) results in alpha-actinin-3 deficiency in XX homozygotes. Previous reports have shown a lower proportion of the ACTN3 XX genotype in power-oriented athletes compared to the general population. In the present study we tested whether XX genotype was under-represented in Russian power-oriented athletes. The study involved 486 Russian power-oriented athletes of regional or national competitive standard. ACTN3 genotype and allele frequencies were compared to 1,197 controls. The frequencies of the ACTN3 XX genotype (6.4 vs. 14.2%; P
Decrement of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) during 10-HZ repetitive nerve stimulation is thought to be an unusual finding in dominant myotonia congenita, and has not previously been reported in patients with the genetically verified disorder. It was the purpose of the present study to elucidate the relation between decrement and CLCN1 mutation type in myotonia congenita. Decrement and genotypes were studied in eight Danish families with myotonia congenita. Six patients with the known dominant mutation P480L had decrements of 30-84%. Patients heterozygous for the R894X mutation had decrements of 20-47%. Three novel CLCN1 mutations (two dominant and one recessive) were found segregating with the Thomsen/Becker phenotypes. In families with the novel dominant mutations M128V and E193K, decrement was absent in all family members tested. In conclusion, CMAP decrement may be pronounced in dominant myotonia congenita, and the presence of decrement is related to mutation type.
Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility is diagnosed using an in vitro contracture test (IVCT). In families in which the mutation is known, genetic tests are also available. The inheritance pattern is regarded as autosomal dominant, which predicts equal proportions of men and women affected. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were sex differences in the diagnostic outcome of the 1407 patients tested for malignant hyperthermia in Sweden between 1985 and 2005.
Information about sex, diagnosis, IVCT result and kinship was analysed. Comparisons were made between the two sexes. Probands and relatives were analysed separately in order to eliminate bias caused by the type of surgery performed in the two sexes.
Males, more than females, revealed a pathological outcome in IVCT. Amongst male relatives, the fraction of pathological outcome in IVCT was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-0.74]; the corresponding value for females was 0.40 (95% CI, 0.36-0.44).
A significant difference was observed in the sex distribution of outcome of IVCT, with significantly more males revealing a pathological IVCT. This indicates the influence of one or several factors related to sex in the outcome of IVCT, for example different expression of calcium handling proteins in the sexes, a complex pattern of inheritance or unknown environmental factors.