Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal-Hôtel-Dieu, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Research Centre, Sainte Justine Hospital, Montreal, QC. firstname.lastname@example.org
The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood. Socio-demographic characteristics may play important roles in its development.
In a case-control study of MS, a total of 200 newly diagnosed MS patients and 202 frequency age- and sex-matched controls were studied.
A direct and significant association was observed between cigarette smoking and the risk of MS. Higher education seemed to reduce the risk of MS. Contact with cats was inversely associated with MS, particularly in males, whereas contact with caged birds increased the risk significantly, especially in females. A strong family aggregation of MS was observed among cases. A past history of trauma and eye problems appeared to pose a high risk of MS. Cases had a significant family history of eye problems, mumps, measles, rubella, cancer and auto-immune diseases.
If smoking and history of certain infectious diseases increase the risk of MS significantly, they could be modified and avoided, thereby reducing the likelihood of being afflicted by MS.
In a previous study, women with endometriosis were found to be at a 7-24-fold increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren syndrome (SS). We examined these associations in a large population-based cohort study.
We followed 37 661 women registered with endometriosis in the Danish Hospital Discharge Register 1977-2007 for subsequent hospitalizations with MS, SLE or SS. As measures of relative risk, we used ratios of observed to expected incidence rates of first hospitalizations for MS, SLE and SS among women with endometriosis, i.e. standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
During slightly more than 456 000 person-years of follow-up, we identified 130, 54 and 86 cases of MS, SLE and SS, respectively, yielding SIRs of 1.2 (95% CI 1.05-1.5) for MS, 1.6 (1.2-2.1) for SLE and 1.6 (1.3-2.0) for SS. In a supplementary analysis restricted to 9191 women with laparoscopy or laparotomy confirmed endometriosis, associations were unchanged for MS (SIR = 1.4; 1.04-1.9), but lost statistical significance for SLE (SIR = 1.1; 0.6-2.1) and SS (SIR = 1.4; 0.9-2.3).
Our national cohort-based findings do not support prior claims of markedly increased risks of MS, SLE and SS in women with endometriosis. However, whether women with endometriosis are truly at a modestly (20-60%) elevated risk of one or more of the studied autoimmune diseases must await clarification in future large-scale prospective studies.
A population-based prevalent group of 150 clinical definite patients ascertained on 1 January 1977, in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, was followed for 30 years.
To outline the clinical characteristics, determine the levels of disability at 15, 25, 35, 40, and 45 years after onset, to estimate the survival after onset and life expectancy.
Clinical records were maintained, and the cohort reviewed each decade for 30 years. The disability levels according to the Kurtzke Extended Disability Status Scale were recorded and survival times were estimated. SPSS and Kaplan-Meier methods were used for analysis.
On prevalence day, 1 January 1977, there were 48 (32%) men and 102 (68%) women, with an average age of onset of 32.2 +/- 10 years and 28.4 +/- 8.6 years. The average duration of disease was 15.7 years. On 1 January 2007, 39 (26%) patients were living, 105 (70%) deceased, and 6 (4%) were missing The disability levels recorded in 1977 and 2007, at 15 and 45 years after onset, were mild (EDSS
Results from previous studies of suicide risk among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are inconsistent. This may be explained partly by differences in methodology and study populations. The purpose of our study was to investigate suicide risk among hospital patients with MS in Sweden. During the period 1969-1996, 12,834 cases were recorded in the Swedish Hospital Inpatient Register, with 77,377 hospital admissions, in which MS was a primary or secondary diagnosis at discharge. The mean follow-up time for the whole cohort was 9.9 (SD 7.3) years. When the data for these MS patients were linked to the Swedish Causes of Death Register for the same period, 5,052 (39.4%) were found to have died. Among the 5,052 deaths, suicide was an underlying cause of death in 90 cases (1.8%). The mean period between the initial admission date with an MS diagnosis at discharge and the date of death for the 90 MS suicide cases was 5.8 (SD 5.1) years. This was significantly shorter (p = 0.002) than the mean of 7.9 (SD 6.4) years for MS cases who died due to other causes. Suicide risk, calculated as the standardized mortality ratio (SMR), was significantly elevated (SMR = 2.3) among both male and female MS cases compared with the general population. Suicide risk was particularly high in the first year after initial admission with an MS diagnosis, and among younger male MS cases. The mean age at the time of suicide was 44.5 (SD 12.4) years, and 58% of the suicides were committed within 5 years after the first admission with an MS diagnosis. The crude suicide rate among MS patients during the study period was 71 per 100,000 person-years. The rate was significantly higher (p
To study employment in benign multiple sclerosis (MS), the frequency of employment was analysed and the effect of early clinical and demographic factors on time to disability pension was evaluated in a population based MS cohort. The frequency of depression, cognitive function, fatigue and pain between benign and non-benign MS patients was compared, and their impact on employment in benign MS was studied.
All 188 patients alive, including 60 benign patients with onset of MS during 1976-1986 in Hordaland County, Western Norway, were interviewed and clinically examined in 2003. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), cognitive function, fatigue, pain, year of disability pension, employment and type of occupation were registered. Benign MS was defined as an EDSS score =3.0 at least 10 years after disease onset.
After a mean disease duration of 22.2 years, 32.4% of the cohort were still employed. A relapsing-remitting course, higher educational level and light physical work were significantly associated with longer time to disability pension in the general MS population. Thirty-nine (65.0%) benign MS patients were employed, independent of light or heavy physical work. Mild depressive symptoms were markedly associated with not being employed in benign MS (OR=7.3).
A relapsing-remitting course, higher educational level and light physical work significantly predicted longer time to disability pension in the total MS population. Among the benign MS patients, depressive symptoms, although mild, were strongly associated with not being employed.
In both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), combinations of environmental and genetic factors are likely to increase the vulnerability to acquire disease. This study was undertaken to investigate any possible comorbidity of COPD and MS, thus indicating common inflammatory vulnerability. Individuals with a diagnosis of COPD (including chronic bronchitis and emphysema) during 1987-2002, according to the Swedish Inpatient and Cause of Death Registers, were identified (180,239 individuals). Thereafter, controls and first-degree relatives of both cases and controls were identified. Finally, all individuals were compared with the Inpatient Register to identify individuals discharged with a diagnosis of MS. In the COPD cohort, there was a more than twofold increased risk of MS compared with controls (HR 2.51; 95% CI 2.13-2.98). The risk of MS was even more pronounced among individuals discharged with a diagnosis of COPD before 60 years of age (HR 6.37; 95% CI 3.58-9.68). There was also an increased risk of MS among mothers (HR 2.24; 95% CI 1.04-4.61) and siblings (HR 1.50; 95% CI 1.08-2.08) of COPD patients. This study indicates that COPD and MS have an inflammatory vulnerability in common, at least in a subgroup of patients. These diseases may share inflammatory pathways, including predisposing variants of genes.
The prevalence of depression and anxiety is increased in patients with multiple sclerosis, but it has not been investigated whether these conditions are treated in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the rate of treatment with antidepressants is increased in patients with multiple sclerosis compared with patients with other chronic illnesses and compared with the general population. By linkage of nationwide case registers, all patients were identified, who had received a main diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or osteoarthritis at first admission or during outpatient contact in the period 1995-2000 in Denmark. Rates of subsequent purchase of antidepressants for these patients were calculated. In total, 417 patients with a main diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and 12 127 patients with a main diagnosis of osteoarthritis, at first discharge from hospital or outpatient contact, were included. Patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis had a 3.21 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.56-4.03] times increased rate of subsequently purchasing antidepressants compared with patients with a first diagnosis of osteoarthritis, and a 4.75 times (95% CI: 3.91-5.76) increased rate when compared with the rate among a gender-matched, age-matched, and calendar-matched sample of the general population. The rates were increased in all subgroups of patients regardless of gender, age, socioeconomic group, and time elapsed since diagnosis.
A case-control study on multiple sclerosis was conducted in Western Norway during the years 1986-1988. Included were 155 persons with multiple sclerosis and 200 controls, marginally matched according to age, sex and area of residence. The mean age at measles infection was for the cases 6.6 years and for the controls 5.7 years (p = 0.06). The cases had more frequently experienced bronchitis and/or pneumonia in the age group 11-15 years (OR = 3.20, 95% confidence interval 0.96-10.63). Tonsillectomies were reported more frequently by the cases. The odds ratio was especially high for those treated at age 0-6 years (OR = 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.63-7.27). The results are consistent with the idea of MS as an age-dependent, host-immune response to infection during childhood or adolescence.
Inverse comorbidity is disease occurring at lower rates than expected among persons with a given index disease. The objective was to identify inverse comorbidity in MS.
We performed a combined case-control and cohort study in a total nationwide cohort of cases with clinical onset of MS 1980-2005. We randomly matched each MS-case with five population controls. Comorbidity data were obtained from multiple, independent nationwide registries. Cases and controls were followed from January 1977 to the index date, and from the index date through December 2012. We controlled for false discovery rate and investigated each of eight pre-specified comorbidity categories: psychiatric, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, lung, and autoimmune comorbidities, diabetes, cancer, and Parkinson's disease.
A total of 8947 MS-cases and 44,735 controls were eligible for inclusion. We found no inverse associations with MS before the index date. After the index date, we found a decreased occurrence of chronic lung disease (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) (HR 0.80 (95% CI 0.75-0.86, p
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether persons with a history of poliomyelitis are at an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients diagnosed with acute poliomyelitis in the greater capital area of Copenhagen, Denmark, between 1919 and 1954 were identified and followed with respect to MS. Information on vital status and diagnosis of sclerosis was obtained through linkage with the Danish Civil Registration System and The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, respectively. Follow-up started on the date of the establishment of the Danish Civil Registration System (April 1, 1968) until death, emigration or December 31, 1996, whichever came first. The observed incidence of MS among polio patients was compared with the expected incidence calculated according to national gender, age and period specific rates of MS. RESULTS: During 149,364 years of follow-up, 19 cases of multiple sclerosis were observed among 5652 polio patients compared with 11.0 expected (SIR = 1.73 (1.04-2.74)). The increased risk of MS was most pronounced in polio patients hospitalized during adolescence. Neither gender nor the acute severity of poliomyelitis modified the risk of MS. CONCLUSION: Our results are based on small numbers of events, however the findings suggest that the polio patients might be at an increased risk of MS.