Broadened recruitment to higher education is on the agenda in many countries, and it is also widely recognized that the number of dyslexic students entering higher education is increasing. In Sweden, as in many other European countries, higher education institutions are required to accommodate students with dyslexia. The present study focuses on the study outcome for 50 students with diagnosed dyslexia, mainly in teacher education and nurses' training, at three universities in Northern Sweden. The students trusted their own ability to find information on the Internet but mistrusted their own abilities in reading course books and articles in English and in taking notes. The mean rate of study was 23.5 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System credits per semester, which is slightly below the national baseline of 26.7. The results show that more than half of the students are examined at a normal rate of study but that about one fifth have a very low rate of study. Messages Most students with dyslexia can compensate for their reading problems. Taking notes during lessons and reading in foreign language may be especially difficult for students with dyslexia. Diagnoses should distinguish between reading comprehension and word decoding. More than half of the students with dyslexia can achieve at a normal rate of study. One-fifth of the students with dyslexia may need a longer period of study than other students.
We examined Finns' and bilingual Swedish-Finns' stereotypes regarding personality differences between Finns and Swedish-Finns and compared them with their respective self-ratings. Stereotype ratings by both groups converged on depicting Swedish-Finns as having a more desirable personality. In-group bias also influenced stereotypes. Contrary to predictions based on the Stereotype Content Model, out-group stereotypes were not compensatory. Consistent with the kernel of truth hypothesis of national stereotypes, Swedish-Finns' aggregate self-ratings resembled their stereotype of personality differences between the two groups, and their personality self-ratings were more desirable than Finns' self-ratings. Tentatively suggesting the occurrence of cultural frame shifting, the resemblance between Swedish-Finns' self-ratings and their stereotype of Swedish-Finns was, although only marginally statistically significantly, somewhat stronger when the self-ratings were provided in Swedish.
The Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life questionnaire (RAQoL) was developed simultaneously in the UK and the Netherlands to measure quality of life in patients with RA. We adapted and validated the RAQoL for the English-Canadian and French-Canadian languages and culture.
The UK RAQoL was translated into French-Canadian by a bilingual translation panel. Separate lay panels were then used to ensure that this and the English-Canadian instruments were appropriate for use with Canadian patients. Interviews were conducted with 15 French-Canadian and 15 English-Canadian patients with RA to determine the content validity. Reliability and construct validity were established by means of test-retest mail surveys conducted with 92 French-Canadian and 87 English-Canadian RA patients. The survey consisted of the adapted RAQoL, the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and a demographic questionnaire.
The RAQoL was successfully adapted for both the French and English-Canadian cultures. Field testing showed both versions to be well received by respondents. Of the French-Canadian patients included in the postal survey, 52 responded at Time 1 and 50 at Time 2. For the English-Canadian sample, 54 responded at both time points. Missing data rates for the RAQoL were low and floor and ceiling effects were minimal. Test-retest reliability was good for both versions: 0.87 for the French-Canadian and 0.95 for the English-Canadian. Alpha coefficients (0.92 for the French-Canadian, 0.93 for the English-Canadian) showed the items to be adequately interrelated and scores on the measure showed moderate to high correlations with the HAQ, confirming construct validity. Both versions of the RAQoL were also able to distinguish patient groups that differed according to perceived health status and perceived severity of RA. In addition, the French-Canadian version was able to distinguish patients who rated today as bad or very bad from those who rated today as good or very good.
The new versions of the RAQoL were well received by both French and English speaking Canadians. The psychometric quality of the adapted questionnaires means they are suitable for inclusion in clinical trials involving patients with RA.
We present a Finland-Swedish adaptation of the Sweden-Swedish group screening test for dyslexia for adults and young adults DUVAN (Lundberg & Wolff, 2003) together with normative data from 143 Finland-Swedish university students. The test is based on the widely held phonological deficit hypothesis of dyslexia and consists of a self-report and five subtests tapping phonological working memory, phonological representation, phonological awareness, and orthographic skill. We describe the test adaptation procedure and show that the internal reliability of the new test version is comparable to the original one. Our results indicate that the language background (Swedish, Finnish, early simultaneous Swedish-Finnish bilingualism) should be taken into account when interpreting the results on the Finland-Swedish DUVAN test. We show that the FS-DUVAN differentiates a group of students with dyslexia diagnosis from normals, and that a low performance on the FS-DUVAN correlates with a positive self-report on familial dyslexia and with a history of special education in school. Finally, we analyze the sensitivity and specificity of the FS-DUVAN for dyslexia among university students.
PURPOSE: This study examined 2 schedules of treatment for phonemic awareness. METHOD: Forty-one 5- to 6-year-old kindergartners, including 22 English learners, with low letter-name and first-sound knowledge received 11 hr of phonemic awareness treatment: concentrated (CP, 3x/wk to December), dispersed (DP, 1x/wk to March), and dispersed vocabulary control (CON). RESULTS: English learners performed similarly to native English speakers. Participants with moderate deficits in letter-names and first sounds showed significant benefits after both treatment conditions. Three times the intensity had no additional effect on phonemic awareness. CP continued to increase significantly during the no-treatment interval. In March, CP and DP were significantly greater than CON, but the 2 conditions did not differ other than with a minor DP advantage on last sounds. By May, there were no significant differences among the 3 conditions in meeting grade-level expectations for phoneme segmenting. CONCLUSION: For phonemic awareness, over the course of a school year, with concomitant classroom instruction, the gains made from short, intense treatment were similar to those made from continuous weekly treatment. At-risk kindergartners with moderate deficits benefited more than those with mild deficits. Children, particularly those with mild deficits, may improve substantially with only classroom instruction and incidental self-regulatory gains from treatment for another area.
This paper focuses on the work involved for service users in arranging and negotiating the use of informal interpreters from their social networks for general practice consultations. The data are drawn from a participatory learning and action research study, carried out in the west of Ireland. Qualitative data were gathered using a peer researcher model from a 'hard to reach' community of Serbo-Croat and Russian refugees and asylum seekers (n=26). The findings elucidate that there is a tension for service users between the experienced benefits of having a trusted friend/family member present to act as their interpreter and the burden of work and responsibility to manage the language barrier. Participants emphasize that, for them, the use of informal interpreters can be inadequate and problematic and can leave them worried, frustrated and with experiences of error and misdiagnosis. Overall, they state a clear preference for the use of professional, trained interpreters in general practice consultations which is currently unavailable to them in routine Irish general practice consultations.
Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death for Canadians. Immigrants underutilize screening and may be at greater risk of late stage diagnosis and death from the disease. This mixed-methods study investigated the self-reported causes of colon cancer by 66 English-as-a-Second-Language Chinese immigrant women to Canada after reading a fact sheet which listed two causes of colon cancer (polyps and cause unknown) and six ways to help prevent colon cancer (lifestyle, diet, weight, smoking, alcohol, and screening). Women correctly named or described both causes (6.1%) or one cause (22.7%), could not name or describe either cause (19.7%), or named or described causes not included on the fact sheet (54.5%). The most common causes reported by participants were "risk factors": diet (53.0%), family history (28.8%), and lifestyle (22.7%). Women confused cause with risk factor and infrequently mentioned screening. Possible reasons for their reported beliefs are discussed.
A total of 104 six-year-old children belonging to 4 groups (English monolinguals, Chinese-English bilinguals, French-English bilinguals, Spanish-English bilinguals) were compared on 3 verbal tasks and 1 nonverbal executive control task to examine the generality of the bilingual effects on development. Bilingual groups differed in degree of similarity between languages, cultural background, and language of schooling. On the executive control task, all bilingual groups performed similarly and exceeded monolinguals; on the language tasks the best performance was achieved by bilingual children whose language of instruction was the same as the language of testing and whose languages had more overlap. Thus, executive control outcomes for bilingual children are general but performance on verbal tasks is specific to factors in the bilingual experience.
The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.