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257 records – page 1 of 26.

The 1993 Fraser N. Gurd Lecture: The view from the edge.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217361
Source
J Trauma. 1994 Sep;37(3):379-86
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1994
Author
G W Fitzgerald
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgery, Charles S. Curtis Memorial Hospital, St. Anthony, Newfoundland, Canada.
Source
J Trauma. 1994 Sep;37(3):379-86
Date
Sep-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Delivery of Health Care
Humans
Injury Severity Score
Off-Road Motor Vehicles
Rural Population
Trauma Centers - statistics & numerical data
PubMed ID
8083897 View in PubMed
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Absence behavior as traffic crash predictor in bus drivers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150286
Source
J Safety Res. 2009;40(3):197-201
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Anders E af Wåhlberg
Lisa Dorn
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. anders.af_wahlberg@psyk.uu.se
Source
J Safety Res. 2009;40(3):197-201
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Accidents, Traffic
Adult
Automobile Driving
England
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Vehicles
Risk assessment
Sweden
Abstract
Various indicators of health have been shown to be associated with traffic crash involvement. As general health is also related to absence from work, the latter variable may be more strongly related to crashes, especially for professional drivers.
Bus driver absence from work was analyzed in association with their crash records. Two British samples and one Swedish sample were used.
One of the British samples yielded fair correlations between crash record and absence, while for the other the effect was restricted to the first three months of driving. The Swedish data had effects in the expected direction but these were not significant.
The use of an indirect, overall measurement of health, may be a viable method for predicting the traffic crash involvement for professional drivers, although replications are needed in larger samples and other populations.
The use of absence records for the identification of at risk drivers would seem to be a simple and useful method for companies with major fleets, and it also shows the importance of promoting employee health and well being at work as a potential method of reducing the cost, not only of absenteeism, but also of crashes in company vehicles.
PubMed ID
19527813 View in PubMed
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The accident-exposure association: self-reported versus recorded collisions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134525
Source
J Safety Res. 2011 Apr;42(2):143-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
A E af Wåhlberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, P. O. Box 1225, 751 42 Uppsala, Sweden. anders.af_wahlberg@psyk.uu.se
Source
J Safety Res. 2011 Apr;42(2):143-6
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Adult
Automobile Driving - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Vehicles
Occupational Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Reproducibility of Results
Self Report
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
It has been claimed that exposure to risk of road traffic accidents (usually conceptualized as mileage) is curvilinearly associated with crashes (i.e., the increase in number of crashes decreases with increased mileage). However, this effect has been criticized as mainly an artifact of self-reported data.
To test the proposition that self-reported accidents create part of the curvilinearity in data by under-reporting by high-accident drivers, self-reported and recorded collisions were plotted against hours of driving for bus drivers.
It was found that the recorded data differed from self-reported information at the high end of exposure, and had a more linear association with the exposure measure as compared to the self-reported data, thus supporting the hypothesis.
Part of the previously reported curvilinearity between accidents and exposure is apparently due to biased methods. Also, the interpretation of curvilinearity as an effect of exposure upon accidents was criticized as unfounded, as the causality may just as well go the other way.
The question of how exposure associates with crash involvement is far from resolved, and everyone who uses an exposure metric (mileage, time, induced) should be careful to investigate the exact properties of their variable before using it.
PubMed ID
21569897 View in PubMed
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Accidents in the north. Some aspects on snowmobile accidents and moose-car collisions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11946
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1992;51 Suppl 7:56-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1992
Author
U. Björnstig
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgery, University of Umeå, Sweden.
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1992;51 Suppl 7:56-8
Date
1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Animals
Deer
Humans
Off-Road Motor Vehicles
Sweden - epidemiology
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
Snowmobile accidents and moose-car crashes are typical accidents in Northern Sweden. In this region there is about 1 snowmobile/10 inhabitants. The present paper combines previously published studies. The studies on snowmobile accidents are based on a material comprising all 61 fatally injured snowmobile drivers from the four northern counties of Sweden during the period 1973-1987. The helmet usage was analyzed in two clinical study populations including 200 injured from the county of Västerbotten from two periods 1979-1980 and 1985-86. Of the fatally injured (median age 32 years) 86% were driving under the influence of alcohol with a mean blood alcohol concentration of 0.17 g/ml. Serious head injuries were uncommon among persons driving without a helmet in the clinical material. Only in about 6% of the cases an open face helmet would probably have had an injury reducing effect. Drunken driving is an important etiological factor for fatal snowmobile accidents. Preventive measures must include information that the Traffic Temperance Law also applies to snowmobile riding. A helmet law for snowmobile riders does not seem to be motivated from the injury reduction point of view. According to official Swedish police statistics more than 400 car occupants are injured annually in crashes with a moose. The crash mechanism is special. Because of its long legs the body of the moose hits directly against the windshield, windshield pillars and front roof. During a period of three years 154 injured passenger car occupants were treated in the hospitals in Umeå and Skellefteå. Of both the front and rear seat occupants 80% suffered laceration injuries from glass or glass splinters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
1285819 View in PubMed
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Active school transportation in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada: an exploration of trends in space and time (1986-2006).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152165
Source
Prev Med. 2009 Jun;48(6):507-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2009
Author
Ron N Buliung
Raktim Mitra
Guy Faulkner
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road N, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. ron.buliung@utoronto.ca
Source
Prev Med. 2009 Jun;48(6):507-12
Date
Jun-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Bicycling - physiology
Child
City Planning
Cross-Sectional Studies
Data Collection
Female
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Motor Activity
Motor Vehicles
Ontario
Retrospective Studies
Schools
Students
Time Factors
Transportation - methods
Urban Population
Walking - physiology
Abstract
This study describes temporal and spatial trends in active transportation for school trips in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada's largest city-region.
Proportions of trips by travel mode to and from school were estimated and compared for children (11-13 years) and youth (14-15 years). Data were drawn from the 1986, 1996, 2001, and 2006 versions of the Transportation Tomorrow Survey (TTS).
Between 1986 and 2006, walking mode share for trips to school declined (53.0%-42.5% for 11-13 year olds, 38.6%-30.7% for 14-15 year olds). Although there has also been a decline in walking home from school, walking rates were higher in the afternoon. In 2006, younger children in the suburbs walked less to school (36.1%-42.3% of trips) than 11-13 year olds in Toronto (48.1%) and Toronto's 14-15 year olds walked less (38.3% of trips) but used transit more (44.8% of trips) than students in the suburbs.
The findings indicate a period of decline (1986-2006) in the use of active modes for journeys to and from school for both age groups. Policies and programs to increase active transportation should acknowledge the spatial, temporal, and demographic heterogeneity of school travel decisions and outcomes.
Notes
Comment In: Prev Med. 2009 Jun;48(6):513-519500552
PubMed ID
19272403 View in PubMed
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[Air pollution, asthma and allergy--the importance of different types of particles]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15327
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Aug 10;122(18):1777-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-10-2002
Author
Heidi Ormstad
Martinus Løvik
Author Affiliation
Avdeling for miljøimmunologi, Divisjon for miljømedisin, Nasjonalt folkehelseinstitutt, Postboks 4404 Nydalen 0403 Oslo. heidi.ormstad@folkehelsa.no
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Aug 10;122(18):1777-82
Date
Aug-10-2002
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Environmental - adverse effects
Allergens - adverse effects
Asthma - chemically induced - etiology
Dust - adverse effects
English Abstract
Heating - adverse effects
Humans
Motor Vehicles
Particle Size
Respiratory Hypersensitivity - chemically induced - etiology
Rubber - adverse effects
Vehicle Emissions - adverse effects
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Particulate air pollution has been much discussed in Norway during the last few years. Coarse particles from asphalt are likely to have quite different properties than the far smaller particles from diesel exhaust. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On the basis of data from the literature and our own research, we discuss the health problem of different types of particles with a focus on allergy and respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Diesel exhaust particles have well-documented adverse effects in relation to allergic airway disease. They increase symptoms load in already allergic individuals and also seem to contribute to the increased prevalence of allergy. PM10 is today measured on the basis of weight, not on number. Diesel exhaust particles are much smaller than road surface particles; hence PM10 measurements reflect road surface dust pollution more than exhaust particles. INTERPRETATION: Focus should now be given to diesel exhaust particles in order to reduce the adverse health effects of particulate air pollution in Norwegian cities.
Notes
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Aug 10;122(18):176612362683
PubMed ID
12362688 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and drug use among motor vehicle collision victims admitted to a regional trauma unit: demographic, injury, and crash characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature220578
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1993 Aug;25(4):411-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1993
Author
G. Stoduto
E. Vingilis
B M Kapur
W J Sheu
B A McLellan
C B Liban
Author Affiliation
Prevention and Health Promotion Research and Development, Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1993 Aug;25(4):411-20
Date
Aug-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcohol Drinking - blood - epidemiology
Automobile Driving - statistics & numerical data
Demography
Ethanol - blood
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Off-Road Motor Vehicles
Ontario - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Trauma Centers
Trauma Severity Indices
Abstract
This study examined the incidence of alcohol and drugs in a sample of seriously injured motor vehicle collision victims, and differences related to pre-crash use of alcohol and/or other drugs on demographic variables, injury severity measures, and crash variables. The sample selected were all motor vehicle collision admissions to the Regional Trauma Unit at the Sunnybrook Health Science Centre in Toronto, Ontario, over a 37-month period (N = 854). Prospective demographic and injury-related information were collected from hospital charts, and crash data were collected from motor vehicle collision police reports. Blood samples were routinely collected on admission and tested for blood alcohol concentration (BAC). We found 32.0% of the BAC-tested motor vehicle collision admissions and 35.5% of drivers tested positive for blood alcohol. The drivers' mean BAC on admission was found to be 145.2 mg/100 ml, and the mean estimated BAC at crash time was 181 mg/100 ml. Drug screens were performed on a two-year subsample (n = 474), of whom 339 were drivers. Drug screens revealed that 41.3% of drivers tested positive for other drugs in body fluids, and 16.5% were positive for alcohol in combination with other drugs. Other than alcohol, the drugs most frequently detected in the drivers were cannabinoids (13.9%), benzodiazepines (12.4%), and cocaine (5.3%). Investigation of differences on demographic, injury, and crash characteristics related to precrash use of alcohol and/or drugs yielded significant findings. In the drug screened sample we found sex, admission type, and occupant status were related to precrash alcohol use. Also, use of drugs was found to interact with admission type and mean BAC on admission. Elapsed time was found to be significantly different for BAC by other drug use, with a greater length of elapsed time found for the subjects testing other drug positive but BAC negative. We found that BAC-positive drug-screened drivers were significantly more likely to be male, involved in a single-vehicle collision, not wearing a seat belt, ejected from the vehicle, and travelling at higher speeds than BAC negative drivers. No significant differences were found between BAC and/or other drug use on injury severity measures.
PubMed ID
8357454 View in PubMed
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Alcohol involvement in snowmobile operator fatalities in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192579
Source
Can J Public Health. 2001 Sep-Oct;92(5):359-60
Publication Type
Article
Author
D J Beirness
Author Affiliation
Taffic Injury Research Foundation of Canada, 171 Nepean Street, Suite 200, Ottawa, ON K2P 0B4. dougb@trafficinjuryresearch.com
Source
Can J Public Health. 2001 Sep-Oct;92(5):359-60
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - mortality
Adolescent
Adult
Alcoholic Intoxication - mortality - prevention & control
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Off-Road Motor Vehicles - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
PubMed ID
11702489 View in PubMed
Less detail

All-terrain vehicle major injury patterns in children: a five-year review in Southwestern Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164966
Source
CJEM. 2006 Jul;8(4):277-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2006
Author
Khalid Alawi
Tim Lynch
Rod Lim
Author Affiliation
Children's Hospital of Western Ontario, University of Western Ontario, London.
Source
CJEM. 2006 Jul;8(4):277-80
Date
Jul-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Child
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Female
Humans
Length of Stay - statistics & numerical data
Male
Off-Road Motor Vehicles - statistics & numerical data
Ontario - epidemiology
Registries
Retrospective Studies
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology
Abstract
The aim of the study was to characterize the nature of the injuries sustained by children involved in all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes in Southwestern Ontario over a 5-year period.
A retrospective chart review was conducted of children who sustained ATV-related trauma and who presented to the emergency department at the Children's Hospital of Western Ontario between Sept. 1, 1998, and Aug. 31, 2003, with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) = 12. Patients were identified by the London Health Sciences Centre Trauma Program Registry. Patient charts were then retrieved and reviewed to record patient demographics, injuries, interventions and length of stay in hospital.
Seventeen patients, 14 male and 3 female, met inclusion criteria. Ages ranged from 8-17 years, with an average age of 13.7 years. Thirteen were
PubMed ID
17324309 View in PubMed
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All terrain vehicle ownership, use, and self reported safety behaviours in rural children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205637
Source
Inj Prev. 1998 Mar;4(1):44-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1998
Author
L. Warda
T P Klassen
N. Buchan
A. Zierler
Author Affiliation
Pediatric Emergency Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Source
Inj Prev. 1998 Mar;4(1):44-9
Date
Mar-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Behavior
Child
Female
Head Protective Devices
Humans
Male
Manitoba
Off-Road Motor Vehicles - statistics & numerical data
Protective Clothing
Rural Population
Safety
Abstract
To describe all terrain vehicle (ATV) ownership, access, use, and safety behaviours in rural Manitoba children.
Questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of grade 6 students attending an agricultural fair.
162 grade 6 children participated. The mean age was 11.4 years, and 46% were male. 125 students (77%) reported having access to ATVs, including 69 four wheeled, 24 three wheeled, and four both three and four wheeled ATVs. ATV experience was reported in 95 students, significantly more often in males and among those with a family owned ATV, with no difference between children living on a farm and in a town. Use of helmets and protective clothing was inadequate (10-40%), and dangerous riding habits common, with males and children living on a farm reporting significantly fewer desirable behaviours.
ATVs are commonly used by children in rural Manitoba, with inadequate protective gear and dangerous riding habits. Mandatory rider training, consumer and dealer education, and legislation enforcement could improve ATV safety in this population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
9595331 View in PubMed
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257 records – page 1 of 26.