Various indicators of health have been shown to be associated with traffic crash involvement. As general health is also related to absence from work, the latter variable may be more strongly related to crashes, especially for professional drivers.
Bus driver absence from work was analyzed in association with their crash records. Two British samples and one Swedish sample were used.
One of the British samples yielded fair correlations between crash record and absence, while for the other the effect was restricted to the first three months of driving. The Swedish data had effects in the expected direction but these were not significant.
The use of an indirect, overall measurement of health, may be a viable method for predicting the traffic crash involvement for professional drivers, although replications are needed in larger samples and other populations.
The use of absence records for the identification of at risk drivers would seem to be a simple and useful method for companies with major fleets, and it also shows the importance of promoting employee health and well being at work as a potential method of reducing the cost, not only of absenteeism, but also of crashes in company vehicles.
It has been claimed that exposure to risk of road traffic accidents (usually conceptualized as mileage) is curvilinearly associated with crashes (i.e., the increase in number of crashes decreases with increased mileage). However, this effect has been criticized as mainly an artifact of self-reported data.
To test the proposition that self-reported accidents create part of the curvilinearity in data by under-reporting by high-accident drivers, self-reported and recorded collisions were plotted against hours of driving for bus drivers.
It was found that the recorded data differed from self-reported information at the high end of exposure, and had a more linear association with the exposure measure as compared to the self-reported data, thus supporting the hypothesis.
Part of the previously reported curvilinearity between accidents and exposure is apparently due to biased methods. Also, the interpretation of curvilinearity as an effect of exposure upon accidents was criticized as unfounded, as the causality may just as well go the other way.
The question of how exposure associates with crash involvement is far from resolved, and everyone who uses an exposure metric (mileage, time, induced) should be careful to investigate the exact properties of their variable before using it.
Snowmobile accidents and moose-car crashes are typical accidents in Northern Sweden. In this region there is about 1 snowmobile/10 inhabitants. The present paper combines previously published studies. The studies on snowmobile accidents are based on a material comprising all 61 fatally injured snowmobile drivers from the four northern counties of Sweden during the period 1973-1987. The helmet usage was analyzed in two clinical study populations including 200 injured from the county of Västerbotten from two periods 1979-1980 and 1985-86. Of the fatally injured (median age 32 years) 86% were driving under the influence of alcohol with a mean blood alcohol concentration of 0.17 g/ml. Serious head injuries were uncommon among persons driving without a helmet in the clinical material. Only in about 6% of the cases an open face helmet would probably have had an injury reducing effect. Drunken driving is an important etiological factor for fatal snowmobile accidents. Preventive measures must include information that the Traffic Temperance Law also applies to snowmobile riding. A helmet law for snowmobile riders does not seem to be motivated from the injury reduction point of view. According to official Swedish police statistics more than 400 car occupants are injured annually in crashes with a moose. The crash mechanism is special. Because of its long legs the body of the moose hits directly against the windshield, windshield pillars and front roof. During a period of three years 154 injured passenger car occupants were treated in the hospitals in Umeå and Skellefteå. Of both the front and rear seat occupants 80% suffered laceration injuries from glass or glass splinters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
This study describes temporal and spatial trends in active transportation for school trips in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada's largest city-region.
Proportions of trips by travel mode to and from school were estimated and compared for children (11-13 years) and youth (14-15 years). Data were drawn from the 1986, 1996, 2001, and 2006 versions of the Transportation Tomorrow Survey (TTS).
Between 1986 and 2006, walking mode share for trips to school declined (53.0%-42.5% for 11-13 year olds, 38.6%-30.7% for 14-15 year olds). Although there has also been a decline in walking home from school, walking rates were higher in the afternoon. In 2006, younger children in the suburbs walked less to school (36.1%-42.3% of trips) than 11-13 year olds in Toronto (48.1%) and Toronto's 14-15 year olds walked less (38.3% of trips) but used transit more (44.8% of trips) than students in the suburbs.
The findings indicate a period of decline (1986-2006) in the use of active modes for journeys to and from school for both age groups. Policies and programs to increase active transportation should acknowledge the spatial, temporal, and demographic heterogeneity of school travel decisions and outcomes.
BACKGROUND: Particulate air pollution has been much discussed in Norway during the last few years. Coarse particles from asphalt are likely to have quite different properties than the far smaller particles from diesel exhaust. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On the basis of data from the literature and our own research, we discuss the health problem of different types of particles with a focus on allergy and respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Diesel exhaust particles have well-documented adverse effects in relation to allergic airway disease. They increase symptoms load in already allergic individuals and also seem to contribute to the increased prevalence of allergy. PM10 is today measured on the basis of weight, not on number. Diesel exhaust particles are much smaller than road surface particles; hence PM10 measurements reflect road surface dust pollution more than exhaust particles. INTERPRETATION: Focus should now be given to diesel exhaust particles in order to reduce the adverse health effects of particulate air pollution in Norwegian cities.
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Aug 10;122(18):176612362683
This study examined the incidence of alcohol and drugs in a sample of seriously injured motor vehicle collision victims, and differences related to pre-crash use of alcohol and/or other drugs on demographic variables, injury severity measures, and crash variables. The sample selected were all motor vehicle collision admissions to the Regional Trauma Unit at the Sunnybrook Health Science Centre in Toronto, Ontario, over a 37-month period (N = 854). Prospective demographic and injury-related information were collected from hospital charts, and crash data were collected from motor vehicle collision police reports. Blood samples were routinely collected on admission and tested for blood alcohol concentration (BAC). We found 32.0% of the BAC-tested motor vehicle collision admissions and 35.5% of drivers tested positive for blood alcohol. The drivers' mean BAC on admission was found to be 145.2 mg/100 ml, and the mean estimated BAC at crash time was 181 mg/100 ml. Drug screens were performed on a two-year subsample (n = 474), of whom 339 were drivers. Drug screens revealed that 41.3% of drivers tested positive for other drugs in body fluids, and 16.5% were positive for alcohol in combination with other drugs. Other than alcohol, the drugs most frequently detected in the drivers were cannabinoids (13.9%), benzodiazepines (12.4%), and cocaine (5.3%). Investigation of differences on demographic, injury, and crash characteristics related to precrash use of alcohol and/or drugs yielded significant findings. In the drug screened sample we found sex, admission type, and occupant status were related to precrash alcohol use. Also, use of drugs was found to interact with admission type and mean BAC on admission. Elapsed time was found to be significantly different for BAC by other drug use, with a greater length of elapsed time found for the subjects testing other drug positive but BAC negative. We found that BAC-positive drug-screened drivers were significantly more likely to be male, involved in a single-vehicle collision, not wearing a seat belt, ejected from the vehicle, and travelling at higher speeds than BAC negative drivers. No significant differences were found between BAC and/or other drug use on injury severity measures.
The aim of the study was to characterize the nature of the injuries sustained by children involved in all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes in Southwestern Ontario over a 5-year period.
A retrospective chart review was conducted of children who sustained ATV-related trauma and who presented to the emergency department at the Children's Hospital of Western Ontario between Sept. 1, 1998, and Aug. 31, 2003, with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) = 12. Patients were identified by the London Health Sciences Centre Trauma Program Registry. Patient charts were then retrieved and reviewed to record patient demographics, injuries, interventions and length of stay in hospital.
Seventeen patients, 14 male and 3 female, met inclusion criteria. Ages ranged from 8-17 years, with an average age of 13.7 years. Thirteen were
To describe all terrain vehicle (ATV) ownership, access, use, and safety behaviours in rural Manitoba children.
Questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of grade 6 students attending an agricultural fair.
162 grade 6 children participated. The mean age was 11.4 years, and 46% were male. 125 students (77%) reported having access to ATVs, including 69 four wheeled, 24 three wheeled, and four both three and four wheeled ATVs. ATV experience was reported in 95 students, significantly more often in males and among those with a family owned ATV, with no difference between children living on a farm and in a town. Use of helmets and protective clothing was inadequate (10-40%), and dangerous riding habits common, with males and children living on a farm reporting significantly fewer desirable behaviours.
ATVs are commonly used by children in rural Manitoba, with inadequate protective gear and dangerous riding habits. Mandatory rider training, consumer and dealer education, and legislation enforcement could improve ATV safety in this population.
Cites: Ann Emerg Med. 1986 Nov;15(11):1293-63777585
Cites: Inj Prev. 1995 Dec;1(4):249-559346041
Cites: Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1987 Sep;8(3):225-83673983
Cites: Tex Med. 1987 Dec;83(12):27-303424238
Cites: Ann Emerg Med. 1988 Jan;17(1):30-33337411
Cites: J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1988 Feb;70(2):1593343259
Cites: J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1988 Feb;70(2):275-843343274
Cites: J Trauma. 1988 Mar;28(3):391-43351996
Cites: Am Surg. 1988 Jul;54(7):429-333389591
Cites: Am Surg. 1988 Aug;54(8):471-43395021
Cites: Bull N Y Acad Med. 1988 Sep-Oct;64(7):804-93240403
Cites: West J Med. 1989 Mar;150(3):296-92735035
Cites: Can J Neurol Sci. 1989 Aug;16(3):336-92766127
Cites: Am J Emerg Med. 1991 Mar;9(2):149-521994943