A 3-year physical activity intervention program increases the gain in bone mineral and bone width in prepubertal girls but not boys: the prospective copenhagen school child interventions study (CoSCIS).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing the amount of time spent in physical education classes on bone mineral accrual and gain in bone size in prepubertal Danish children. A total of 135 boys and 108 girls, aged 6-8 years, were included in a school-based curriculum intervention program where the usual time spent in physical education classes was doubled to four classes (180 min) per week. The control group comprised age-matched children (62 boys and 76 girls) recruited from a separate community who completed the usual Danish school curriculum of physical activity (90 min/week). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC; g), bone mineral density (g/cm(2)), and bone width at the calcaneus and distal forearm before and after 3 years of intervention. Anthropometrics and Tanner stages were evaluated on the same occasions. General physical activity was measured with an accelerometer worn for 4 days. In girls, the intervention group had a 12.5% increase (P = 0.04) in distal forearm BMC and a 13.2% increase (P = 0.005) in distal forearm scanned area compared with girls in the control group. No differences were found between the intervention and control groups in boys. Increasing the frequency of physical education classes for prepubertal children is associated with a higher accrual of bone mineral and higher gain in bone size after 3 years in girls but not in boys.
Most pediatric exercise intervention studies that evaluate the effect on skeletal traits include volunteers and follow bone mass for less than 3 years. We present a population-based 6-year controlled exercise intervention study in children with bone structure and incident fractures as endpoints. Fractures were registered in 417 girls and 500 boys in the intervention group (3969 person-years) and 835 girls and 869 boys in the control group (8245 person-years), all aged 6 to 9 years at study start, during the 6-year study period. Children in the intervention group had 40 minutes daily school physical education (PE) and the control group 60 minutes per week. In a subcohort with 78 girls and 111 boys in the intervention group and 52 girls and 54 boys in the control group, bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(2) ) and bone area (mm(2) ) were measured repeatedly by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measured bone mass and bone structure at follow-up. There were 21.7 low and moderate energy-related fractures per 1000 person-years in the intervention group and 19.3 fractures in the control group, leading to a rate ratio (RR) of 1.12 (0.85, 1.46). Girls in the intervention group, compared with girls in the control group, had 0.009?g/cm(2) (0.003, 0.015) larger gain annually in spine BMD, 0.07?g (0.014, 0.123) larger gain in femoral neck bone mineral content (BMC), and 4.1?mm(2) (0.5, 7.8) larger gain in femoral neck area, and at follow-up 24.1?g (7.6, 40.6) higher tibial cortical BMC (g) and 23.9?mm(2) (5.27, 42.6) larger tibial cross-sectional area. Boys with daily PE had 0.006?g/cm(2) (0.002, 0.010) larger gain annually in spine BMD than control boys but at follow-up no higher pQCT values than boys in the control group. Daily PE for 6 years in at study start 6- to 9-year-olds improves bone mass and bone size in girls and bone mass in boys, without affecting the fracture risk.
Comment In: J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Jun;29(6):1322-424764102
The aim of this study was to investigate changes over six years in physical activity and sedentary behavior assessed with accelerometry in a representative sample of Swedish adults.
A longitudinal study over six years.
The cohort consisted of 1172 participants (46% males) in 2002 and 511 participants (46% males) in 2008, of which 478 (45% males) had valid data on both occasions. Mean (SD) age at baseline was 45 (15) years. To analyze changes over time, a mixed linear model for average intensity physical activity (counts/min) and time in sedentary behavior and light- and moderate- or higher-intensity physical activity was conducted, stratified for sex and age, and adjusted for BMI, education, self-rated health and ? wear time.
Over a six year period no significant changes were seen in the total cohort for average intensity and time in moderate- or higher intensity physical activity. A significant decrease in average intensity physical activity was found for men (p=0.006) and those aged 60+ years at baseline (p
Obesity- and virus-mediated insulin resistance (IR) are associated with adverse hepatic and metabolic outcomes in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This study evaluates the tolerability and effects of a dietary and physical activity (PA) intervention in obese patients with insulin-resistant CHC.
Obese patients (body mass index, BMI =30 kg/m(2) ) with CHC were recruited prospectively. Non-diabetic patients with IR (homeostasis model assessment of IR, HOMA-IR >2.0) proceeded to a 24-week lifestyle intervention comprising pedometer monitored increase in PA (=10 000 steps/day) and an individualised dietary plan.
Ten non-cirrhotic and six cirrhotic patients [age 52 ± 8.5 years, BMI 35.9 (31.46-38.21)kg/m(2) ] were recruited, of whom all 16 (100%) completed the 24-week protocol. Increase in PA from 6853 (2440-9533) to 10 697 (7959-13566) steps/day (P = 0.001) and reduction in caloric intake from 2263 (1805.4-2697.0) to 1281 (1099.5-1856.3) kcal/day (equivalent to reduction of median 33% (25.3-49.8%), P
The -250G>A promoter variant in hepatic lipase associates with elevated fasting serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modulated by interaction with physical activity in a study of 16,156 Danish subjects.
CONTEXT: Hepatic lipase plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein by involvement in reverse cholesterol transport and the formation of atherogenic small dense low-density lipoprotein. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the impact of variants in LIPC on metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes in a large sample of Danes. Because behavioral factors influence hepatic lipase activity, we furthermore examined possible gene-environment interactions in the population-based Inter99 study. DESIGN: The LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) variant was genotyped in the Inter99 study (n = 6070), the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care Denmark screening cohort of individuals with risk factors for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 8662), and in additional type 2 diabetic patients (n = 1,064) and glucose-tolerant control subjects (n = 360). RESULTS: In the Inter99 study, the A allele of rs2070895 associated with a 0.057 mmol/liter [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.039-0.075] increase in fasting serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 8 x 10(-10)) supported by association in the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care study [0.038 mmol/liter per allele (95% CI 0.024-0.053); P = 2 x 10(-7)). The allelic effect on HDL-c was modulated by interaction with self-reported physical activity (P(interaction) = 0.002) because vigorous physically active homozygous A-allele carriers had a 0.30 mmol/liter (95% CI 0.22-0.37) increase in HDL-c compared with homozygous G-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We validate the association of LIPC promoter variation with fasting serum HDL-c and present data supporting an interaction with physical activity implying an increased effect on HDL-c in vigorous physically active subjects carrying the -250 A allele. This interaction may have potential implications for public health and disease prevention.
Aggregation of the amyloid-beta-42 (Abeta42) peptide in the brain parenchyma is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the prevention of Abeta aggregation has been proposed as a therapeutic intervention in AD. However, recent reports indicate that Abeta can form several different prefibrillar and fibrillar aggregates and that each aggregate may confer different pathogenic effects, suggesting that manipulation of Abeta42 aggregation may not only quantitatively but also qualitatively modify brain pathology. Here, we compare the pathogenicity of human Abeta42 mutants with differing tendencies to aggregate. We examined the aggregation-prone, EOFAD-related Arctic mutation (Abeta42Arc) and an artificial mutation (Abeta42art) that is known to suppress aggregation and toxicity of Abeta42 in vitro. In the Drosophila brain, Abeta42Arc formed more oligomers and deposits than did wild type Abeta42, while Abeta42art formed fewer oligomers and deposits. The severity of locomotor dysfunction and premature death positively correlated with the aggregation tendencies of Abeta peptides. Surprisingly, however, Abeta42art caused earlier onset of memory defects than Abeta42. More remarkably, each Abeta induced qualitatively different pathologies. Abeta42Arc caused greater neuron loss than did Abeta42, while Abeta42art flies showed the strongest neurite degeneration. This pattern of degeneration coincides with the distribution of Thioflavin S-stained Abeta aggregates: Abeta42Arc formed large deposits in the cell body, Abeta42art accumulated preferentially in the neurites, while Abeta42 accumulated in both locations. Our results demonstrate that manipulation of the aggregation propensity of Abeta42 does not simply change the level of toxicity, but can also result in qualitative shifts in the pathology induced in vivo.
When assessing population adherence to physical activity (PA) recommendation using accelerometers, absolute intensity threshold definition is applied despite having limited validity in those with low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), who are unable to reach them (e.g older adults). Thus, PA thresholds relative to CRF may be an alternative approach. We compared the proportion of the older adults meeting the PA recommendation when PA is assessed using absolute versus sex-and-CRF-adjusted (relative) accelerometer thresholds and determined the association between relative versus absolute moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Cross-sectional study of 509 men and 567 women aged 70-77. Accelerometer assessed MPA, VPA and MVPA were analyzed using absolute and relative thresholds. Meeting the PA-recommendation was defined as amounting =150 min/week in MPA/MVPA or 75 min/week in VPA, respectively. CRF was directly measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). MetS was defined as 3 or more of the following: elevated waist circumference, fasting glucose, hypertension, triglycerides, decreased HDL-cholesterol or diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension medication.
Higher proportion of the population met the recommendation when PA was assessed with relative compared to absolute thresholds: VPA (72.4% vs. 1.7%) and MVPA (75.2% vs. 33.8%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that men and women not meeting the relative-MVPA or VPA recommendation had higher likelihood of MetS (Men: MVPA OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.08-2.33.
1.81, 95%CI: 1.23-2.67 and Women: MVPA OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.36-3.31; VPA OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.29-2.95), compared to men and women meeting the relative MVPA or VPA recommendation. There was no significant association between MetS and absolute MVPA, MPA or VPA recommendations in the fully adjusted model.
The association between meeting/not meeting the PA recommendation and MetS differed with method. Not meeting relative MVPA and VPA recommendation was associated with significantly higher likelihood for presence of MetS. Since relative intensity is part of the current PA recommendation, it should be considered when assessing population PA and associated health risks in the older adults.
Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01931111 (Date of trial registration: July 19, 2013).
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There is a lack of large-scale comparable data on the population levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary activity. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based multicenter study to describe the levels of PA and sedentary activity and to determine adherence to current national PA recommendations in Norwegian adults and older people.
In 2008 and 2009, PA was assessed objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer in 3867 participants age 20-85 yr. A total of 3267 participants provided valid PA assessments that met all inclusion criteria.
Women and men did not differ in the overall activity levels (335 and 342 counts per minute, respectively) or in steps per day (8113 and 7951 steps per day, respectively). However, for intensity-specific PA, men accumulated significantly more minutes of sedentary activity and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) compared with women (557 vs 533 min of sedentary activity, P = 0.001 and 35 vs 33 min of MVPA, P = 0.01). Both overall activity levels and steps per day remained steady with age, until 65 yr, after which activity levels declined.
Overall, the study sample spent 62% of their time being sedentary, 25% in low-intensity PA, 9% in lifestyle activity, and 4% in MVPA. One in five people met current national PA recommendations. These results suggest that adults and older people spend the majority of their time being sedentary and that adherence to PA recommendations is low.
This study aimed to (1) explore whether quality of life (QOL) is more associated with satisfaction with social participation (SP) than with level of accomplishment in SP and (2) examine respective correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP.
A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 155 older adults (mean age=73.7; 60% women) having various levels of activity limitations. Accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP (dependent variables) were estimated with the social roles items of the assessment of life habits. Potential correlates were human functioning components.
Correlations between QOL and accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP did not differ (P=0.71). However, best correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP were different. Higher accomplishment level of SP was best explained by younger age, activity level perceived as stable, no recent stressing event, better well-being, higher activity level, and fewer obstacles in "Physical environment and accessibility" (R2=0.79). Greater satisfaction with SP was best explained by activity level perceived as stable, better self-perceived health, better well-being, higher activity level, and more facilitators in "Social support and attitudes" (R2=0.51).
With some exceptions, these best correlates may be positively modified and thus warrant special attention in rehabilitation interventions.
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Low back pain (LBP) is common already in adolescence, and many risk indicators including both psychosocial and lifestyle factors have been recognized. Our purpose was to assess whether the co-occurrence of psychosocial (externalizing and internalizing) problems and lifestyle factors (leisure time physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, smoking, and overweight/obesity) associate with LBP at 16 years cross-sectionally or with new LBP at 18-year follow-up.
The study population, drawn from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, consisted of 1625 participants (712 boys and 913 girls) who completed a questionnaire on potential explanatory factors at 16 years and on LBP at 16 and 18 years. The outcome measure was 'reporting LBP' or 'consultation for LBP' during the past 6 months. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was utilized to study the co-occurrence of the explanatory factors.
Among both genders, four clusters were found. Externalizing behaviour problems were associated with 'reporting LBP' (RR 1.5, boys 1.4, girls) and 'consultation for LBP' (RR 1.6 for both genders) at baseline among both genders. In addition, the cluster of multiple risk behaviours was associated with both 'reporting LBP' (RR 1.3) and 'consultation for LBP' (RR 2.5) and the obese cluster with 'consultation for LBP' (RR 1.7) among girls. Externalizing behaviour problems at 16 years predicted 'consultation for LBP' at 18 years among girls (RR 3.6).
Our results stress the role of psychosocial factors in reporting and seeking care for adolescent LBP.