The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the impact of coaching certification upon coaching attitudes toward important social psychological correlates of involvement in sport. Specifically, 249 coaches with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 levels of certification in the National Coaching Certification Program for Hockey were compared on attitudes toward important social psychological correlates of athletic involvement. As a consequence of anomalies in the sample, the six levels of certification were collapsed to form a factorial design comprising 2 levels of certification (coaches with 0.1 and 2 levels versus coaches with 3, 4, and 5 levels) and 2 levels of competition (house league versus competitive league coaches). The results revealed that coaches with greater certification were older and more experienced. Also, coaches in competitive leagues were more experienced, attached more importance to setting realistic objectives and playing well, but less importance to providing a recreational experience for players than house league coaches. Also, with increasing certification, coaches in competitive leagues attached increased importance to beating an opponent and having a winning team while house league coaches showed a decrease. Finally, the emphasis planed upon providing equal ice time for all players remained low over the two levels of certification in the competitive league coaches; it showed a decrease with greater certification in the house league coaches.
Online therapies are partly automated therapies, in which psychotherapeutic contents have been complemented with computer-aided presentational and educational contents, with a therapist giving support to the progress of the patient. As methods, these therapeutic programs incorporate therapeutic methods that have proven effective, such as remodeling of thoughts, activation of behavior and exposure, empathy, strengthening of cooperative relationship and motivation, and general support for self-reflection. For instance, online therapies already constitute part of the Finnish treatment guidelines on depression. Online therapies are available throughout Finland for the essential psychiatric illnesses.