While a number of studies have documented higher period prevalence rates of depression among single as compared to married mothers, all of the data have been based upon community surveys of mental illness. In Canada, all of the published work comes from Ontario. As a result, we do not know whether these results hold true for other regions of the country. Using a nationally representative sample, we find, consistent with previous work, that single mothers have almost double the 12-month prevalence rates of married mothers (15.4% versus 6.8%). As well, there are no significant differences in rates of depression between single and married mothers by region/province of the country. Our findings are compared with other epidemiologic data on the mental health of single mothers from Ontario.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of maternal recall of children birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA), using the Danish Medical Birth Register (DBR) as reference and to examine the reliability of recalled BW and its potential correlates. DESIGN: Comparison of data from the DBR and the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). SETTING: Schools in Odense, Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 1271 and 678 mothers of school children participated with information in the accuracy studies of BW and GA, respectively. The reliability sample of BW was composed of 359 women. METHOD: The agreement between the two sources was evaluated by mean differences (MD), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman's plots. The misclassification of the various BW and GA categories were also estimated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between recalled and registered BW and GA. RESULTS: There was high agreement between recalled and registered BW (MD =-0.2 g; ICC = 0.94) and GA (MD = 0.3 weeks; ICC = 0.76). Only 1.6% of BW would have been misclassified into low, normal or high BW and 16.5% of GA would have been misclassified into preterm, term or post-term based on maternal recall. The logistic regression revealed that the most important variables in the discordance between recalled and registered BW were ethnicity and parity. Maternal recall of BW was highly reliable (MD =-5.5 g; ICC = 0.93), and reliability remained high across subgroups. CONCLUSION: Maternal recall of BW and GA seems to be sufficiently accurate for clinical and epidemiological use.
Data is lacking on the reliability of weight and height for young children as reported by parents participating in population-based studies. We analysed the accuracy of parental reports of children's weights and heights as estimates of body mass index, and evaluated the factors associated with the misclassification of overweight and obese children.
Analyses were conducted on a population-based birth cohort of 1549 4-year-old children from the province of Québec (Canada) in 2002. Mothers reported weights and heights for the children as part of the regular annual data collection. Within the following 3 months, children's weights and heights were measured at home as part of a nutrition survey.
This study indicates that mothers overestimate their children's weight more than their height, resulting in an overestimation of overweight children of more than 3% in the studied population. Only 58% of the children were reported as overweight/obese with reported values. Maternal misreporting is more important for boys than girls, and for low socioeconomic status children compared with high socioeconomic status children.
Research on the prevalence of overweight and obesity has often used self-reported measures of height and weight to estimate BMI. However, the results emphasize the importance of collecting measured data in childhood studies of overweight and obesity at the population level.
The aim of this study was to test a new method for continuous monitoring of the Danish contact person concept and to evaluate the impact of the concept on the mothers' perception of nursing care and on their self-efficacy.
This is a descriptive study, carried out at a neonatal unit forming part of a department of paediatrics. Using an electronic questionnaire, the mothers were asked if they had been given a contact nurse and how they assessed the quality of the care and their own self-efficacy. The correlation between their experience of being given a contact person and having high scores of nursing care and of self-efficacy was analyzed by logistic regression.
A total of 300 (81%) of the mothers answered the questionnaire. Among the mothers who acknowledged having had a contact nurse compared with those who did not, odds ratios were > 1 in 10/11 questions concerning assessment of nursing care. Concerning the mothers' assessment of their self-efficacy, the odds ratios were > 1 in 7/11 questions. None of these were statistically significant.
The study showed a tendency towards a positive impact on nursing care when contact persons were allocated to the mothers who were admitted to a neonatal ward. The findings were statistically significant in 2/11 questions.
To predict acute psychological distress in pregnant women following detection of a fetal structural anomaly by ultrasonography, and to relate these findings to a comparison group.
A prospective, observational study.
Tertiary referral centre for fetal medicine.
One hundred and eighty pregnant women with a fetal structural anomaly detected by ultrasound (study group) and 111 with normal ultrasound findings (comparison group) were included within a week following sonographic examination after gestational age 12 weeks (inclusion period: May 2006 to February 2009).
Social dysfunction and health perception were assessed by the corresponding subscales of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Psychological distress was assessed using the Impact of Events Scale (IES-22), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the anxiety and depression subscales of the GHQ-28. Fetal anomalies were classified according to severity and diagnostic or prognostic ambiguity at the time of assessment.
Social dysfunction, health perception and psychological distress (intrusion, avoidance, arousal, anxiety, depression).
The least severe anomalies with no diagnostic or prognostic ambiguity induced the lowest levels of IES intrusive distress (P = 0.025). Women included after 22 weeks of gestation (24%) reported significantly higher GHQ distress than women included earlier in pregnancy (P = 0.003). The study group had significantly higher levels of psychosocial distress than the comparison group on all psychometric endpoints.
Psychological distress was predicted by gestational age at the time of assessment, severity of the fetal anomaly, and ambiguity concerning diagnosis or prognosis.
A longitudinal research project began in 1993 of Norwegian, Swedish and American mothers' perception of her family's dynamics and adaptation during childbearing and childrearing. Results indicated that Swedish mothers adapted better than other mothers. In 2003, a mixed design study was conducted with original Swedish mothers that aimed to describe the experience of motherhood, the meaning mothers attached to events in their lives that made adaptation necessary, and ways in which they achieved adaptation. Fourteen mothers completed quantitative instruments and 13 of those mothers were interviewed. Audiotaped interviews were transcribed and analysed for themes using a protocol based on a model of family resiliency. Quantitative findings revealed statistically significant findings in areas of children, mother's work outside the home and families in which a major illness had occurred. Qualitative findings revealed that protective factors far outweighed vulnerability and risk factors. Mothers' satisfaction with life manifested itself in love of home, contentment with employment, fulfillment from an active and healthy life and support from a society that provides a wide range of social benefits for the family. Vulnerability occurred primarily when mothers were tired, lacked personal time or someone in the family was experiencing a serious illness. Results of this study enhance the scholarly scientific knowledge about the uniqueness of Swedish mothers, and increased understanding of family dynamics and adaptation. Many of the findings relate in some way to overall social benefits and supports available for families.
This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants with (a) Down syndrome (DS; n = 114), (b) cleft lip/palate (CLP; n = 179), and (c) no disability (ND; n = 99,122). Responses on the Satisfaction With Life Scale and a short version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist were analyzed using structural equation modeling, including latent growth curves. Satisfaction and distress levels were highly diverse in the sample, but fairly stable over time (retest correlations: .47-.68). However, the birth of a child with DS was associated with a rapid decrease in maternal life satisfaction and a corresponding increase in psychological distress observed between pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. The unique effects from DS on changes in satisfaction (Cohen's d = -.66) and distress (Cohen's d = .60) remained stable. Higher distress and lower life satisfaction at later assessments appeared to reflect a persistent burden that was already experienced 6 months after birth. CLP had a temporary impact (Cohen's d = .29) on maternal distress at 6 months. However, the overall trajectories did not differ between CLP and ND mothers. In sum, the birth of a child with DS influences maternal psychological distress and life satisfaction throughout the toddler period, whereas a curable condition like CLP has only a minor temporary effect on maternal psychological distress.
Cohort studies often report findings on children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but may be biased by self-selection. The representativeness of cohort studies needs to be investigated to determine whether their findings can be generalised to the general child population. The aim of the present study was to examine the representativeness of child ADHD in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
The study population was children born between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2008 registered with hyperkinetic disorders (hereafter ADHD) in the Norwegian Patient Registry during the years 2008-2013, and two groups of children with ADHD were identified in: 1. MoBa and 2. The general child population. We used the multiaxial International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and compared the proportions of comorbid disorders (axes I-III), abnormal psychosocial situations (axis V) and child global functioning (axis VI) between these two groups. We also compared the relative differences in the multiaxial classifications for boys and girls and for children with/without axis I comorbidity, respectively in these two groups of children with ADHD.
A total of 11 119 children were registered with ADHD, with significantly fewer in MoBa (1.45%) than the general child population (2.11%), p
We examined the well-being of mothers and non-mothers reporting exclusive opposite-gender sexual partners (OG), same-gender sexual partners (SG), or both (BI) in a representative sample of 20,773 participants (11,034 women) 15-years-old or older from the population of Quebec province in Canada. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire and SG and BI women (n = 179) were matched to a sample of OG women (n = 179) based on age, income, geographical area, and children (having at least one 18-year-old or younger biological or adopted child at home). We assessed social milieu variables, risk factors for health disorders, mental health, and quality of mothers' relationship with children. The findings indicated a sexual orientation main effect: Mothers and non-mothers in the SG and BI group, as compared to their OG controls, were significantly less likely to live in a couple relationship, had significantly lower levels of social support, higher prevalence of early negative life events, substance abuse, suicide ideation, and higher levels of psychological distress. There were no Sexual Orientation X Parenthood status effects. The results further indicated that sexual orientation did not account for unique variance in women's psychological distress beyond that afforded by their social milieu, health risk factors, and parenthood status. No significant differences were found for the quality of mothers' relationship with children. SG-BI and OG mothers with low levels of social integration were significantly more likely to report problems with children than parents with high levels of social integration. We need to understand how marginal sexualities and their associated social stigma, as risk indicators for mothers, interact with other factors to impact family life, parenting skills, and children's adjustment.
OBJECTIVES: Affective psychosis has its peak incidence during the childbearing years, but little is known about the effects of the illness on pregnancy. We investigated risks of preterm delivery (PTD), low birthweight (LBW), births of infants small for their gestational age (SGA), stillbirth and infant death in births to mothers with affective psychosis using a nested case-control design within a cohort of 1,558,071 singleton births in Sweden during 1983-1997. METHODS: Using prospectively collected data from population registers, we compared the pregnancy outcomes of 5,618 births to women with affective psychosis with the outcomes of 46,246 births to unaffected mothers. RESULTS: Mothers with affective psychosis had elevated risk for giving birth to preterm, small or growth-retarded babies. The risk for stillbirth and infant death during the first year of life was not significantly higher. The risks were greatest in mothers receiving hospital treatment for affective disorder during pregnancy: (i) preterm delivery: odds ratio (OR) = 2.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.71-4.17; (ii) SGA: OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.34-4.16; (iii) low birthweight: OR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.31-3.76; and (iv) stillbirth: OR = 2.19; 95% CI = 0.55-8.76. After adjustment for covariates, particularly smoking, the risks were attenuated but remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with affective psychosis, some of which may be preventable.