The results of screening more than 23,000 serum samples from persons belonging to risk groups, as well as those not belonging to such groups, in Moscow, Vilnius and Klaipeda are presented. Screening was carried out with the use of an assay system manufactured by the Scientific and Industrial Amalgamation "Antigen" (USSR). In this screening 3 HIV carriers were detected; of these, 2 were foreign students from two African countries.
The analysis of emergency surgical care in medical institution of Moscow for the last 20 years is presented in the article. There were 912 156 patients with acute appendicitis, strangulated hernia, perforated gastro-duodenal ulcer, gastro-duodenal bleeding, acute cholecystitis, acute pancreatitis, acute intestinal obstruction on treatment during this period. It was observed reduction overall and postoperative mortality. It was concluded that positive results are caused by development of material and technical base, transition on clock mode of diagnostic units, increase of patients? number hospitalized in department of intensive care for operation training and after it, using of modern diagnostic and therapeutic methods, edit documents regulating of health facilities activity according to medicine development.
Attitudes concerning the acceptability of suicide have been emphasized as being important for understanding why levels of suicide mortality vary in different societies across the world. While Russian suicide mortality levels are among the highest in the world, not much is known about attitudes to suicide in Russia. This study aims to obtain a greater understanding about the levels and correlates of suicide acceptance in Russia.
Data from a survey of 1,190 Muscovites were analysed using logistic regression techniques. Suicide acceptance was examined among respondents in relation to social, economic and demographic factors as well as in relation to attitudes towards other moral questions.
The majority of interviewees (80%) expressed condemnatory attitudes towards suicide, although men were slightly less condemning. The young, the higher educated, and the non-religious were more accepting of suicide (OR > 2). However, the two first-mentioned effects disappeared when controlling for tolerance, while a positive effect of lower education on suicide acceptance appeared. When controlling for other independent variables, no significant effects were found on suicide attitudes by gender, one's current family situation, or by health-related or economic problems.
The most important determinants of the respondents' attitudes towards suicide were their tolerance regarding other moral questions and their religiosity. More tolerant views, in general, also seemed to explain the more accepting views towards suicide among the young and the higher educated. Differences in suicide attitudes between the sexes seemed to be dependent on differences in other factors rather than on gender per se. Suicide attitudes also seemed to be more affected by one's earlier experiences in terms of upbringing and socialization than by events and processes later in life.
The authors describe part of the results of a comparative clinico-economic analysis of the functioning of two models of organizational forms of psychiatric services with special reference to Moscow and Kaluga. The purpose of the given research fragment was to make a comparative analysis of expenditures on schizophrenic patients depending on the system of psychiatric services organization on the whole and between different types of services; to specify approaches to optimization of their functioning with the use of a clinico-economic approach. Based on a comparative investigation of the representative groups of schizophrenic patients (386 patients of a mental health center in Moscow and 531 patients of the Kaluga regional psychiatric hospital No. 1), it has been established that as a result of the proper organization and financing of psychiatric services in Kaluga, the "direct" expenditures on one schizophrenic patient per year could be 20% as reduced and the losses of the national income could be lowered more than 2-fold. It should necessarily be mentioned that the financing of extra hospital services in Kaluga exceeded that in Moscow more than 3-fold, reaching about 20.3% of all the expenditures on schizophrenic patients. Apparently, the organizational and financial experience gained in Kaluga with the design of the common complex and many-staged system of psychiatric services may turn fairly instrumental in elaborating approaches to optimization of the functioning of psychiatric services.
Long-term results of electroimpulse treatment for cardiac fibrillation in 1292 patients performed in cardiological clinics of Moscow and Kaunas have been compared. It is shown that more strict selection, longer preparation for the impulse exposure may secure a significant decrease in the number of the fibrillation recurrences both 1 and 6 months after recovery of the normal rhythm.
The contributors provide an analysis of the conditions and reasons accounting for the acute occupational intoxications in closed environments, which occurred in Moscow in 1986-1989 and resulted in 18 deaths. Proposals are made with regard to a state standard act on the safety rules for working in closed environments with the texts of some paragraphs to this act.
To estimate survival median and its changes, number of patients over 18 years of age for 1991-2000 and 2001-2010 for 20-year period (1991-2010), to elucidate factors affecting survival for 2001-2010 in mucoviscidosis children living in Moscow and Moscow Region and treated outpatiently in specialized medical centers.
Case records were analysed for mucoviscidosis patients registered in specialized clinics of Moscow on 01.01.01 and 01.01.11. Survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier curve.
Survival medians for 1991-2000 and 2001-2010 was 25.7 and 35.1 years, respectively In the group of mucoviscidosis patients with Staphylococcus aureus infection survival was significantly higher than in those infected with gram-negative microflora. Longer survival was reported in patients with "soft" mutation (p = 0.06927).
The survival median for mucoviscidosis patients for 2001-2010 was 35.1 years. The percentage of adult patients in the last decade significantly rose from 19.5 to 32%. Gram-negative microflora significantly reduces survival, while 'soft" mutation prolongs survival. Creation of National Register will specify survival of mucoviscidosis patients in all regions of the Russian Federation.