Despite the availability of several acute coronary syndrome (ACS) prognostic risk scores, there is no appropriate score for early-risk stratification at the time of the first medical contact with patients with ACS. The primary objective of this study is to develop a simple risk score that can be used for early-risk stratification of patients with ACS.
We derived the risk score from the Acute Myocardial Infarction in Quebec and Canada ACS-1 registries and validated the risk score in 4 other large data sets of patients with ACS (Canada ACS-2 registry, Canada-GRACE, EFFECT-1, and the FAST-MI registries). The final risk score is named the Canada Acute Coronary Syndrome Risk Score (C-ACS) and ranged from 0 to 4, with 1 point assigned for the presence of each of these variables: age =75 years, Killip >1, systolic blood pressure 100 beats/min. The primary end points were short-term (inhospital or 30-day) and long-term (1- or 5-year) all-cause mortality.
The C-ACS has good predictive values for short- and long-term mortality of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation ACS. The negative predictive value of a C-ACS score =1 is excellent at =98% (95% CI 0.97-0.99) for short-term mortality and =93% (95% CI 0.91-0.96) for long-term mortality. In other words, a C-ACS score of 0 can potentially identify correctly =97% short-term survivors and =91% long-term survivors.
The C-ACS risk score permits rapid stratification of patients with ACS. Because this risk score is simple and easy to memorize and calculate, it can be rapidly applied by health care professionals without advanced medical training.
Erratum In: Am Heart J. 2013 Sep;166(3):604Yan, Andrew [corrected to Yan, Andrew T]; Loughlin, Jennifer O [corrected to O'Loughlin, Jennifer]; Yan, Raymond [corrected to Yan, Raymond T]
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use in patients at high risk of coronary artery disease has been associated with a decrease in the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and death. However, it is unclear whether chronic use of these agents modifies the course and outcome of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study assessed the association between chronic use of ACE inhibitors and clinical outcomes in patients with ACS. From 1999 through 2008, 13,632 Canadian patients with ACS were identified in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE), the expanded GRACE (GRACE(2)), and the Canadian Registry of Acute Coronary Events (CANRACE). Patients were stratified by previous use of an ACE inhibitor. Clinical characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for GRACE risk score and other clinical factors was performed. Patients receiving an ACE inhibitor before the ACS had a higher prevalence of diabetes (40.6% vs 21.2%, p
There are limited data on the contemporary management and outcomes of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients with diabetes in the "real world." We sought to evaluate (1) the temporal changes in the medical and invasive management and (2) in-hospital outcome of NSTE-ACS patients with and without diabetes.
We included Canadian patients hospitalized for NSTE-ACS enrolled in 4 consecutive, prospective, multicenter registries: Canadian ACS-I (n = 3259; 1999-2001), ACS-II (n = 1,956; 2002-2003), Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE/GRACE2 [n = 7,561; 2004-2007]) and Canadian Registry of Acute Coronary Events (n = 1,326; 2008). Participants were stratified by the presence or absence of preexisting diabetes on admission. Temporal changes in patient management and outcomes were evaluated across the 4 registries. Multivariable analyses were performed to determine the independent prognostic significance of diabetes.
Of the 14,102 NSTE-ACS patients, 4,046 (28.7%) had previously diagnosed diabetes. Patients with diabetes were older; were more likely to have prior cardiac history including myocardial infarction, revascularization, and heart failure; and had worse Killip class and higher GRACE risk score (all P
Current guidelines recommend the measurement of fasting lipid profile and use of statins in all patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the temporal trends of lipid testing and statin therapy in "real-world" patients with ACS are unclear. From January 1999 through December 2008, the prospective, multicenter, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE/GRACE(2)/CANRACE) enrolled 13,947 patients with ACS in Canada. We stratified the study population based on year of presentation into 3 groups (1999 to 2004, 2005 to 2006, and 2007 to 2008) and compared the use of lipid testing and use of statin therapy in hospital. Overall, 70.8% of patients underwent lipid testing and 79.4% received in-hospital statin therapy; these patients were younger and had lower GRACE risk scores (p 130 mg/dl (3.4 mmol/L) were more likely to be treated with in-hospital statins. In conclusion, there has been a significant temporal increase in the use of in-hospital statin therapy but only a minor increase in lipid testing. Lipid testing was strongly associated with in-hospital statin use. A substantial proportion of patients with ACS, especially those at higher risk, still do not receive these guideline-recommended interventions in contemporary practice.
Treatment and outcomes of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes in relation to initial diagnostic impressions (insights from the Canadian Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events [GRACE] and Canadian Registry of Acute Coronary Events [CANRACE]).
The early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains challenging, and a considerable proportion of patients are diagnosed with "possible" ACS on admission. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE/GRACE(2)) and Canadian Registry of Acute Coronary Events (CANRACE) enrolled 16,618 Canadian patients with suspected ACS in 1999 to 2008. We compared the demographic and clinical characteristics, use of cardiac procedures, prognostic accuracy of the GRACE risk score, and in-hospital outcomes between patients given an admission diagnosis of "definite" versus "possible" ACS by the treating physician. Overall, 11,152 and 5,466 patients were given an initial diagnosis of "definite" ACS and "possible" ACS, respectively. Patients with a "possible" ACS had higher GRACE risk score (median 130 vs 125) and less frequently received aspirin, clopidogrel, heparin, or ß blockers within the first 24 hours of presentation and assessment of left ventricular function, stress testing, cardiac catheterization, and percutaneous coronary intervention (all p