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Fatal intoxications in Denmark following intake of morphine from opium poppies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature233964
Source
Z Rechtsmed. 1988;101(3):197-204
Publication Type
Article
Date
1988
Author
A. Steentoft
E. Kaa
K. Worm
Author Affiliation
Institute of Forensic Chemistry. University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Z Rechtsmed. 1988;101(3):197-204
Date
1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Denmark
Female
Humans
Male
Morphine - analysis - poisoning
Opium - analysis - poisoning
Papaver - analysis
Plants, Medicinal - analysis
Risk factors
Abstract
In Denmark it is legal to grow opium poppies for the production of poppy seeds and until 1986 for decoration purposes, too. Danish poppy capsules contain 0.3-5 mg morphine per capsule and the content of morphine in opium exuded from the capsules may amount to 24%. This has resulted in misuse as both fresh and dried poppy capsules have been used for the production of "opium tea". During the period 1982-1985, seven casualties occurred among drug addicts in Denmark which were solely or partly caused by these opium poppies.
PubMed ID
3227727 View in PubMed
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[Modified photoelectrocolorimetric method of determining morphine in poppy pods, in aqueous extracts and in alcohol-ammonia eluates]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature13426
Source
Farm Zh. 1972 Nov-Dec;27(6):48-52
Publication Type
Article

[Photoelectrocolorimetric method of determining morphine in alcohol-ammonia mother liquors]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature13201
Source
Farm Zh. 1976 Sep-Oct;31(5):58-60
Publication Type
Article

Post-mortem levels and tissue distribution of codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide, norcodeine, morphine and morphine glucuronides in a series of codeine-related deaths.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280057
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2016 May;262:128-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016
Author
Joachim Frost
Trine Nordgård Løkken
Arne Helland
Ivar Skjåk Nordrum
Lars Slørdal
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2016 May;262:128-37
Date
May-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Adult
Aged
Brain Chemistry
Chromatography, Liquid
Codeine - analogs & derivatives - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 - genetics
Female
Forensic Toxicology
Genotype
Humans
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Middle Aged
Morphine - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Morphine Derivatives - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Muscle, Skeletal - chemistry
Norway - epidemiology
Postmortem Changes
Solid Phase Extraction
Substance-Related Disorders - mortality
Tissue Distribution
Vitreous Body - chemistry
Young Adult
Abstract
This article presents levels and tissue distribution of codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G), norcodeine, morphine and the morphine metabolites morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in post-mortem blood (peripheral and heart blood), vitreous fluid, muscle, fat and brain tissue in a series of 23 codeine-related fatalities. CYP2D6 genotype is also determined and taken into account. Quantification of codeine, C6G, norcodeine, morphine, M3G and M6G was performed with a validated solid phase extraction LC-MS method. The series comprise 19 deaths (83%) attributed to mixed drug intoxication, 4 deaths (17%) attributed to other causes of death, and no cases of unambiguous monointoxication with codeine. The typical peripheral blood concentration pattern in individual cases was C6G»codeine»norcodeine>morphine, and M3G>M6G>morphine. In matrices other than blood, the concentration pattern was similar, although in a less systematic fashion. Measured concentrations were generally lower in matrices other than blood, especially in brain and fat, and in particular for the glucuronides (C6G, M3G and M6G) and, to some extent, morphine. In brain tissue, the presumed active moieties morphine and M6G were both below the LLOQ (0.0080mg/L and 0.058mg/L, respectively) in a majority of cases. In general, there was a large variability in both measured concentrations and calculated blood/tissue concentration ratios. There was also a large variability in calculated ratios of morphine to codeine, C6G to codeine and norcodeine to codeine in all matrices, and CYP2D6 genotype was not a reliable predictor of these ratios. The different blood/tissue concentration ratios showed no systematic relationship with the post-mortem interval. No coherent degradation or formation patterns for codeine, morphine, M3G and M6G were observed upon reanalysis in peripheral blood after storage.
PubMed ID
26986973 View in PubMed
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