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Abortion ethics--women's post abortion assessments.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64698
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1994 Jul;73(6):492-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1994
Author
K. Holmgren
N. Uddenberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1994 Jul;73(6):492-6
Date
Jul-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Legal - psychology
Adolescent
Adult
Attitude
Ethics
Female
Guilt
Humans
Interviews
Maternal-Fetal Relations
Moral Development
Pregnancy
Pregnant Women
Qualitative Research
Research
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Shame
Sweden
Abstract
BACKGROUND. Induced abortion is often discussed in terms of ethics. The aim of the present report is to describe the abortion ethics as it was expressed by women undergoing a legal abortion. OBJECTIVE. Moral considerations expressed during semistructured interviews by 128 women two weeks after a first trimester abortion in Stockholm 1987-90 are reported. RESULT. The women had faced a choice between abortion and parenthood. At the time of the abortion many of them were living under conditions that meant they were unable to offer a child the security they regarded as a child's right. The conflict the women spontaneously described as their main moral dilemma was not a conflict between the woman and the fetus, but a conflict between several close relationships, also concerning the prospective father. The ethics that the women applied to the problems of abortion was founded on a long-term responsibility to care for persons in their relationships. CONCLUSION. The women interviewed had three levels of moral reasoning simultaneously present. 1. A theoretical level--most of all concerning other women--a liberal view of rights: abortion should be a freely obtainable option. 2. A theoretical level--above all, concerning themselves--a restrictive deontological view: the extinction of life is morally wrong and should be avoided. 3. A practical level--when the problem was a reality: a consequentialist ethics of care. According to this ethics of care it was important that the abortion could be performed as early as possible during pregnancy.
PubMed ID
8042463 View in PubMed
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Against dichotomies: On mature care and self-sacrifice in care ethics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286954
Source
Nurs Ethics. 2017 Sep;24(6):694-703
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Inge van Nistelrooij
Carlo Leget
Source
Nurs Ethics. 2017 Sep;24(6):694-703
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Altruism
Empathy - ethics
Ethical Theory
Ethics, Nursing
Humans
Moral Development
Norway
Professional-Patient Relations - ethics
Abstract
In previous issues of this journal, Carol Gilligan's original concept of mature care has been conceptualized by several (especially Norwegian) contributors. This has resulted in a dichotomous view of self and other, and of self-care and altruism, in which any form of self-sacrifice is rejected. Although this interpretation of Gilligan seems to be quite persistent in care-ethical theory, it does not seem to do justice to either Gilligan's original work or the tensions experienced in contemporary nursing practice.
A close reading of Gilligan's concept of mature care leads to a view that differs radically from any dichotomy of self-care and altruism. Instead of a dichotomous view, a dialectical view on self and other is proposed that builds upon connectedness and might support a care-ethical view of nursing that is more consistent with Gilligan's own critical insights such as relationality and a practice-based ethics. A concrete case taken from nursing practice shows the interconnectedness of professional and personal responsibility. This underpins a multilayered, complex view of self-realization that encompasses sacrifices as well.
When mature care is characterized as a practice of a multilayered connectedness, caregivers can be acknowledged for their relational identity and nursing practices can be recognized as multilayered and interconnected. This view is better able to capture the tensions that are related to today's nursing as a practice, which inevitably includes sacrifices of self. In conclusion, a further discussion on normative conceptualizations of care is proposed that starts with a non-normative scrutiny of caring practices.
PubMed ID
26811398 View in PubMed
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Benevolence, a central moral concept derived from a grounded theory study of nursing decision making in psychiatric settings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature73316
Source
J Adv Nurs. 1993 Jul;18(7):1106-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1993
Author
K. Lützén
C. Nordin
Author Affiliation
Stockholm School of Health and Caring Sciences, Department of Nursing, Sweden.
Source
J Adv Nurs. 1993 Jul;18(7):1106-11
Date
Jul-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Altruism
Beneficence
Conflict (Psychology)
Decision Making
Ethical Theory
Ethics, Nursing
Female
Helping Behavior
Humans
Intention
Male
Mentally Ill Persons
Moral Development
Morals
Motivation
Nurse-Patient Relations
Nursing Methodology Research
Nursing Staff - psychology
Psychiatric Nursing - methods
Risk-Taking
Sweden
Virtues
Abstract
Fourteen experienced nurses participated in an explorative study aimed at describing the experiential aspects of moral decision making in psychiatric nursing practice. In-depth interviews were conducted according to the grounded theory method. These were transcribed, coded and categorized in order to generate conceptual categories. The concept of benevolence was identified as a central motivating factor in the nurses' own accounts of situations in which decisions were made on behalf of the patient. This seems to conceptualize the nurses' expressed aim to do that which is 'good' for the patient in responding to his or her vulnerability. This study indicates the need for further research into the subjective, experiential aspect of ethical decision making from a contextual perspective.
PubMed ID
8370901 View in PubMed
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Care-based ethical reasoning among first-year nursing and social services students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140071
Source
J Adv Nurs. 2011 Feb;67(2):418-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2011
Author
Soile Juujärvi
Kaija Pesso
Liisa Myyry
Author Affiliation
Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Espoo, Finland. soile.juujarvi@laurea.fi
Source
J Adv Nurs. 2011 Feb;67(2):418-27
Date
Feb-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Induced - ethics
Adult
Counseling - ethics
Decision Making - ethics
Female
Finland
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Psychological
Moral Development
Nursing Education Research
Pregnancy
Social Work - education
Students - psychology
Students, Nursing - psychology
Thinking
Young Adult
Abstract
This paper is a report of a study conducted to describe nursing and social services students' ethical reasoning at the start of their studies.
Gilligan argued that there are two modes of moral reasoning - the ethic of justice, focusing on individuals' rights, and the ethic of care, focusing on responsibilities in relationships. Recent research has established the ethic of care as a developmental phenomenon. It has been widely argued that the ethic of care is crucial for nursing, but there has been little international research in this area.
Participants were first-year nursing and social services students in Finland (N =112). Their care-based moral reasoning was measured using the Ethic of Care Interview, and their ethical reasoning on an abortion-related dilemma was analysed by content analysis. Expressed ethical codes and principles were calculated according to levels. The data were collected over a 5-month period in 2007-2008.
Students' level of care reasoning was varied. Their current level of care reasoning was reflected in their responses to the ethical dilemma. Ethical reasoning at each level and its specific premises constituted a distinct entity. Use of the principle of self-determination was positively related to levels of care development. Care-based moral reasoning constitutes the bedrock for ethical reasoning among these novice students.
Educators should be sensitive to the variation in students' current developmental levels in care reasoning. Reflective discussion on real-life ethical conflicts should be an explicit part of education and clinical practice in caring professions.
PubMed ID
20946568 View in PubMed
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Changes in students' moral development during medical school: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186065
Source
CMAJ. 2003 Apr 1;168(7):840-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2003
Author
Johane Patenaude
Theophile Niyonsenga
Diane Fafard
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke and the Centre for Clinical Research, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke, QC. johane.patenaude@usherbrooke.ca
Source
CMAJ. 2003 Apr 1;168(7):840-4
Date
Apr-1-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Education, Medical
Ethics, Medical - education
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Moral Development
Psychological Theory
Quebec
Statistics, nonparametric
Students - psychology
Abstract
The requirements of professionalism and the expected qualities of medical staff, including high moral character, motivate institutions to care about the ethical development of students during their medical education. We assessed progress in moral reasoning in a cohort of medical students over the first 3 years of their education.
We invited all 92 medical students enrolled at the University of Sherbrooke, Que., to complete a questionnaire on moral reasoning at the start of their first year of medical school and at the end of their third year. We used the French version of Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview. Responses to the questionnaire were coded by stage of moral development, and weighted average scores were assigned according to frequency of use of each stage.
Of the 92 medical students, 54 completed the questionnaire in the fall of the first year and again at the end of their third year. The average age of the students at the end of the third year was 21 years, and 79% of the students included in the study were women. Over the 3-year period, the stage of moral development did not change substantially (i.e., by more than half a stage) for 39 (72%) of the students, shifted to a lower stage for 7 (13%) and shifted to a higher stage for 8 (15%). The overall mean change in stage was not significant (from mean 3.46 in year 1 to 3.48 in year 3, p = 0.86); however, the overall mean change in weighted average scores showed a significant decline in moral development (p = 0.028).
Temporal variations in students' scores show a levelling process of their moral reasoning. This finding prompts us to ask whether a hidden curriculum exists in the structure of medical education that inhibits rather than facilitates the development of moral reasoning.
Notes
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Comment In: CMAJ. 2003 Apr 1;168(7):854-512668545
Comment In: CMAJ. 2003 May 27;168(11):139012771056
Comment In: CMAJ. 2003 May 27;168(11):139012771055
Comment In: CMAJ. 2003 Nov 25;169(11):1145-614638637
Comment In: CMAJ. 2003 Jun 24;168(13):1643-412821608
PubMed ID
12668541 View in PubMed
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Changes in the components of moral reasoning during students' medical education: a pilot study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183827
Source
Med Educ. 2003 Sep;37(9):822-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2003
Author
J. Patenaude
T. Niyonsenga
D. Fafard
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, and Centre for Clinical Research, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada. Johnae.Patenaude@USherbrooke.ca
Source
Med Educ. 2003 Sep;37(9):822-9
Date
Sep-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Education, Medical, Undergraduate - ethics - standards
Ethics, Medical - education
Female
Humans
Male
Moral Development
Pilot Projects
Quebec
Questionnaires
Students, Medical - psychology
Abstract
Many authors are concerned by students' moral reasoning not developing normally during medical education.
This study is concerned with how the components of student' moral reasoning are affected by their medical studies.
Ninety-two medical students were tested on entry into first year and on finishing third year, to determine evolutionary changes in their moral reasoning. Changes in their use of arguments specific to each stage of moral development were measured.
Significant changes were observed in the weighted global score (-18.14 +/- 59.17, P = 2.8%). Changes in global score correlated with changes in stages of moral reasoning. The multivariate structure of moral reasoning was reorganised into two principal components, which, respectively, explained almost 82% (first year) and 72% (third year) of the total variability in scores. Moral reasoning stages characterized by law-and-order and social-contract/legalistic orientations proved important for explaining the variability in students' moral reasoning at the start of medical training, while instrumental-relativist and interpersonal-concordance orientations explained variability post third year.
Students restructure their handling of ethical questions by using arguments with more instrumental-relativist and interpersonal-concordance orientations, rather than those of the more desirable law-and-order or social-contract/legalistic type. To assess better the skills required for moral reasoning, a more sophisticated approach is needed than that of a simple measure of improvement/stagnation/deterioration.
PubMed ID
12950947 View in PubMed
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Developing the concept of moral sensitivity in health care practice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170335
Source
Nurs Ethics. 2006 Mar;13(2):187-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2006
Author
Kim Lützén
Vera Dahlqvist
Sture Eriksson
Astrid Norberg
Author Affiliation
Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden. kim.lutzen@esh.se
Source
Nurs Ethics. 2006 Mar;13(2):187-96
Date
Mar-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude of Health Personnel
Awareness
Concept Formation
Ethics, Medical
Ethics, Nursing
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Personnel - education - ethics - psychology
Humans
Middle Aged
Models, Nursing
Models, Psychological
Moral Development
Nursing Methodology Research
Patient Advocacy - ethics - psychology
Philosophy, Medical
Philosophy, Nursing
Professional Competence - standards
Professional Role - psychology
Qualitative Research
Questionnaires
Self Efficacy
Social Responsibility
Sweden
Abstract
The aim of this Swedish study was to develop the concept of moral sensitivity in health care practice. This process began with an overview of relevant theories and perspectives on ethics with a focus on moral sensitivity and related concepts, in order to generate a theoretical framework. The second step was to construct a questionnaire based on this framework by generating a list of items from the theoretical framework. Nine items were finally selected as most appropriate and consistent with the research team's understanding of the concept of moral sensitivity. The items were worded as assumptions related to patient care. The questionnaire was distributed to two groups of health care personnel on two separate occasions and a total of 278 completed questionnaires were returned. A factor analysis identified three factors: sense of moral burden, moral strength and moral responsibility. These seem to be conceptually interrelated yet indicate that moral sensitivity may involve more dimensions than simply a cognitive capacity, particularly, feelings, sentiments, moral knowledge and skills.
PubMed ID
16526152 View in PubMed
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The development of moral judgment during nursing education in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178087
Source
Nurse Educ Today. 2004 Oct;24(7):538-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
Jaana Auvinen
Tarja Suominen
Helena Leino-Kilpi
Klaus Helkama
Author Affiliation
Yliopistonkatu 7 C 30, 20100 Turku, Finland. jaana.auvien@kaarina.fi
Source
Nurse Educ Today. 2004 Oct;24(7):538-46
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude of Health Personnel
Cross-Sectional Studies
Curriculum - standards
Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate - ethics - methods - standards
Ethics, Nursing - education
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Finland
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Judgment - ethics
Male
Moral Development
Nursing Education Research
Nursing Methodology Research
Professional Competence - standards
Questionnaires
Students, Nursing - psychology
Teaching - methods - standards
Abstract
This study describes moral judgment among first- and last-year nursing students in Finland and examines the effects of ethics teaching on the development of moral judgment. The data for this quantitative cross-sectional study were collected using the Defining Issues Test (DIT), which is based on Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning stages. The questionnaires were sent to four polytechnics, which offer nursing education in southern Finland. A total of 52 first-year students and 54 last-year students participated. The results showed that students who had had to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practical training had higher moral judgment than students who did not. Last-year students had higher moral judgment than first-year students. Last-year students resorted to principle-based thinking more often than first-year students in resolving DIT dilemmas. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant. The results indicate that nursing education may has an effect upon students' moral judgment.
PubMed ID
15465169 View in PubMed
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Do guilt- and shame-proneness differentially predict prosocial, aggressive, and withdrawn behaviors during early adolescence?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257858
Source
Dev Psychol. 2014 Mar;50(3):941-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Sanna Roos
Ernest V E Hodges
Christina Salmivalli
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology.
Source
Dev Psychol. 2014 Mar;50(3):941-6
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Aggression - psychology
Developmental Disabilities
Female
Finland
Guilt
Humans
Male
Moral Development
Predictive value of tests
Self Report
Social Behavior
Statistics as Topic
Time Factors
Abstract
In this short-term longitudinal study, we systematically examined the distinctiveness of guilt- and shame-proneness in early adolescents (N = 395, mean age = 11.8 years) in terms of differential relations with peer reported prosocial behavior, withdrawal, and aggression. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that guilt-proneness concurrently predicted more aggressive and less prosocial behavior as well as subsequent increases in prosocial behavior. Shame-proneness predicted subsequent decreases in prosocial behavior. Although girls reported a greater proneness to experience guilt and shame than boys, the associations between the two dispositional emotions and social behaviors were found to be similar across time and gender.
PubMed ID
23895166 View in PubMed
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Empathy and values as predictors of care development.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121731
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2012 Oct;53(5):413-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Soile Juujärvi
Liisa Myyry
Kaija Pesso
Author Affiliation
Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Espoo, Finland. soile.juujarvi@laurea.fi
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2012 Oct;53(5):413-20
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude of Health Personnel
Caregivers - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Empathy
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Health Occupations
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Moral Development
Questionnaires
Social Values
Students - psychology
Abstract
This study investigates values and affective empathy as predictors for care-based moral development. Fifty-three students from a university of applied sciences were interviewed with Skoe's Ethic of Care Interview at the beginning of their studies and two years later. Value priorities were measured by Schwartz et al.'s Portrait Value Questionnaire, empathy variables by Davis' Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and feelings of sympathy were rated using a real-life moral conflict. The results showed that students in care-oriented fields progressed in care reasoning. Real-life sympathy and the value of self-direction positively predicted development in care reasoning, whereas personal distress was a negative predictor. The results indicate that care-based moral development is more closely connected with affective empathy than personal values. Individuals who feel empathy for others, and who prefer independent thinking and action, achieve the greatest gains in care development. In conclusion, educators should encourage students' empathy and moral reasoning in authentic moral conflicts.
PubMed ID
22882636 View in PubMed
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26 records – page 1 of 3.