The objective of the study was to investigate associations between patients ratings of their treatment milieu and personal characteristics such as gender, age, educational level, personality disorders, symptom distress, interpersonal problems, global level of functioning, as well as treatment outcome. Data was taken from 908 patients (with mainly personality, mood and anxiety disorders) consecutively admitted to eight day-treatment units. Treatment milieu was measured by Ward Atmosphere Scale for Therapeutic Programs (WAS-TP). Overall level of psychosocial functioning was measured by Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Diagnoses and personality traits was measured by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II), according to DSM-IV. Symptom distress and interpersonal problems was measured by Symptom Checklist 90-R and the Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, respectively. No substantial associations were found between individual personal characteristics and ratings of the treatment milieu, and no substantial associations were found between ratings of the treatment milieu and treatment outcome or the likelihood of treatment completion. There seems to be no support as to making general inferences about or from individual ratings of the treatment milieu. Possible uses of individual evaluations of treatment milieu are discussed.
Chronobiological treatments are non-pharmacological treatments that influence the circadian rhythms and the physiology of sleep. In these treatments, the sleep-wake cycle and exposure to environmental stimuli affecting the biological rhythms are controlled. The aim is to produce a therapeutic effect in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Chronobiological treatments include manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle, like sleep deprivation and advanced sleep-wake rhythm, and scheduled exposures to light and darkness. The clinical use of chronobiological treatments in Finland has been minimal and limited to the treatment of mood disorders, especially depressive disorders.
We believe that holistic medicine can be used for patients with mental health disorders. With holistic psychiatry, it is possible to help the mentally ill patient to heal existentially. As in holistic medicine, the methods are love or intense care, winning the trust of the patient, getting permission to give support and holding, and daring to be fully at the patient's service. Our clinical experiences have led us to believe that mental health patients can heal if only you can make him or her feel the existential pain at its full depth, understand what the message of the suffering is, and let go of all the negative attitudes and beliefs connected with the disease. Many mentally ill young people would benefit from a few hours of existential holistic processing in order to confront the core existential pains. To help the mentally ill patient, you must understand the level of responsibility and help process the old traumas that made the patient escape responsibility for his or her own life and destiny. To guide the work, we have developed a responsibility scale going from (1) free perception over (2) emotional pain to (3) psychic death (denial of life purpose) further down to (4) escape and (5) denial to (6) destruction of own perception and (7) hallucination further down to (8) coma, suicide, and unconsciousness. This scale seems to be a valuable tool to understand the state of consciousness and the nature of the process of healing that the patient must go through.
Rural residence may reduce access to specialized mental health services. The objective of this study was to examine the role of rural residence in relation to service utilization. Using Canadian data collected in 2002, service use was examined as a function of the presence of anxiety or mood disorders and rural/urban residence. Use of four different types of professional mental health services was examined in relation to rural residence and additional demographic, social, and health status factors known to predict use of services.
Data were obtained from Statistics Canada's Canadian Mental Health Survey Cycle 1.2. Rural residence was defined as living in a rural community with a population of 1000 or less. For all participants, associations between the presence of anxiety or mood disorders, rural/urban residence, and any service use or use of specialized mental health services (psychiatry and psychology) were examined. For participants who had used professional services, associations were examined between 17 predictor variables, including location of residence, and the use of four types of service providers (family doctor or GP; nurse, social worker, counsellor, or psychotherapist; psychiatrist; or psychologist). Predictors included demographic, social, and health status variables. Cross-tabulated counts and adjusted odds ratios with 99% confidence intervals based on bootstrapped variance estimates were used to evaluate predictors.
Among the total sample (n = 35 140), 7.9% had used professional mental health services in the previous year. Among people who were likely to have had anxiety or mood disorders, rural or urban residence was not differentially related to past-year use of any professional services or specialized mental health services. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model factors predicting past year use of four different types of professional services. Location of residence was not a significant predictor of service utilization. Age, sex, race, level of education, degree of psychological distress, chronicity of distress, and the presence of anxiety or mood disorders predicted type of service used.
The notion that rural residence limits access to mental health services was not supported. Other demographic and health status indicators such as age, sex, race, education, distress, and type of illness were more important predictors of service utilization. However, null findings related to geographic residence must be interpreted cautiously due to the small sample of rural residents who sought mental health services. The mental health system in Canada must provide a variety of professional services in order to meet the preferences of diverse groups, and mental health specialists must find ways to adequately support general practice physicians and counsellors who provide mental health services.
Access to outpatient psychiatric care remains problematic in Canada. We have been using group medical visits (GMV) to treat psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. Our study aimed to show that patients are similarly satisfied with GMV and individual psychiatric treatment, hence the concern that patients truly prefer individual treatment may be unfounded.
Our study compared patient satisfaction in people who have had previous individual psychiatric care and are now receiving GMV to determine whether there is a treatment preference.
Questionnaire data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. The ANOVAs showed no differences in patients' experiences with individual treatment, compared with GMV. In addition, we found when asked directly, most patients preferred GMV or had no treatment preference.
These findings indicate that patients' perspectives of individual psychiatric treatment and GMV are roughly equal. This suggests that the method of GMV deserves further study and comparison with other clinical models of psychiatric outpatient treatment.
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Little is known about general and family practitioners' (GP/FPs') involvement and confidence in dealing with children with common psychosocial problems and mental health conditions. The aims of this study were to ascertain GP/FPs' preferred level of involvement with, and perceived comfort and skill in dealing with children with behavioral problems, social-emotional difficulties, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and mood disorders; and to identify factors associated with GP/FPs' involvement, comfort and skill.
Postal survey of a representative sample of 801 GP/FPs in British Columbia, Canada, which enquired about level of involvement (from primarily refer out to deal with case oneself); ratings of comfort/skill with assessment/diagnosis and management; beliefs regarding psychosocial problems in children; basic demographics; and practice information.
Surveys were completed by 405 of 629 eligible GP/FPs (64.4%). Over 80% of respondents reported collaborative arrangements with specialists across problem and condition types, although for children with behavior problems or ADHD, more physicians primarily refer (chi2 (1) = 9.0; P
Cites: Br J Gen Pract. 2000 Mar;50(452):199-20210750228
Both increased and decreased health service usage and unmet care needs are more prevalent among unemployed people than in the general population.
This study investigates the associations of substance-related and mood disorders among long-term unemployed people with styles of healthcare attendance in Finland.
The study material consisted of the health register information on 498 long-term unemployed people in a project screening for work disabilities. The data were analysed by mixed methods: qualitative typological analysis was applied to identify differential healthcare attendance styles, and the associations of the obtained styles with mental health disorders were analysed quantitatively by multinomial logistic regression.
Three styles, characterized as smooth, faltering and marginalized, were identified. Compared with participants with the smooth attendance style without mental disorders, those with the faltering style had tenfold relative risk for substance-related disorder and fourfold relative risk for mood disorder. Those with the marginalized style had fivefold relative risk for substance-related disorder and twofold relative risk for mood disorder. Adjusting for background characteristics did not alter the statistical significance of substance-related disorder. In the case of mood disorders, the statistical significance persisted throughout the adjustments in the faltering style.
Dysfunctional use of health services is more common among people with substance-related or mood disorders, who are at risk of drifting towards long-term unemployment and work disabilities. The early detection of those with faltering or marginalized healthcare attendance style may prevent prolonged unemployment, enable rehabilitation measures and reduce the risk of disability pensions.