Structured diagnostic inter- views include items that evaluate physical etiologies for mood and anxiety disorders. The objective of this article was to assess the impact of such items.
A mental health survey in Canada collected data from n = 36,984 household residents. The lifetime prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders was calculated with and without exclusions due to physical causes.
Approximately 10% of subjects with a lifetime depressive disorder reported that all of their episodes were due to one or more physical cause. Many of the reported etiologies were implausible given the DSM-IV requirement that the disturbance be a "direct physiological consequence" of the physical cause. The results were similar for manic episodes and anxiety disorders.
Structured diagnostic interviews assess physical etiologies in ways that are subject to inconsistency and inaccuracy. Physical etiology items may bias estimates by introducing etiological opinions into the assessment of disorder frequency.
Mood disorders frequently co-occur with medical diseases that involve inflammatory pathophysiologic mechanisms. Immune responses can affect the brain and might increase the risk of mood disorders, but longitudinal studies of comorbidity are lacking.
To estimate the effect of autoimmune diseases and infections on the risk of developing mood disorders.
Nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study with 78 million person-years of follow-up. Data were analyzed with survival analysis techniques and adjusted for calendar year, age, and sex.
Individual data drawn from Danish longitudinal registers.
A total of 3.56 million people born between 1945 and 1996 were followed up from January 1, 1977, through December 31, 2010, with 91,?637 people having hospital contacts for mood disorders.
The risk of a first lifetime diagnosis of mood disorder assigned by a psychiatrist in a hospital, outpatient clinic, or emergency department setting. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and accompanying 95% CIs are used as measures of relative risk.
A prior hospital contact because of autoimmune disease increased the risk of a subsequent mood disorder diagnosis by 45% (IRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.39-1.52). Any history of hospitalization for infection increased the risk of later mood disorders by 62% (IRR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.60-1.64). The 2 risk factors interacted in synergy and increased the risk of subsequent mood disorders even further (IRR, 2.35; 95% CI, 2.25-2.46). The number of infections and autoimmune diseases increased the risk of mood disorders in a dose-response relationship. Approximately one-third (32%) of the participants diagnosed as having a mood disorder had a previous hospital contact because of an infection, whereas 5% had a previous hospital contact because of an autoimmune disease.
Autoimmune diseases and infections are risk factors for subsequent mood disorder diagnosis. These associations seem compatible with an immunologic hypothesis for the development of mood disorders in subgroups of patients.
Comment In: Evid Based Ment Health. 2014 Feb;17(1):2024327367
Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders are commonly seen in clinical practice. The goal of this article is to review the available literature on the epidemiologic, etiologic, clinical, and management aspects of this comorbidity and formulate a set of evidence- and consensus-based recommendations. This article is part of a set of Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) Comorbidity Task Force papers.
We conducted a PubMed search of all English-language articles published between January 1966 and November 2010. The search terms were bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, cross-referenced with anxiety disorders/symptoms, panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Levels of evidence for specific interventions were assigned based on a priori determined criteria, and recommendations were developed by integrating the level of evidence and clinical opinion of the authors.
Comorbid anxiety symptoms and disorders have a significant impact on the clinical presentation and treatment approach for patients with mood disorders. A set of recommendations are provided for the management of bipolar disorder (BD) with comorbid anxiety and major depressive disorder (MDD) with comorbid anxiety with a focus on comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder, use of cognitive-behavioral therapy across mood and anxiety disorders, and youth with mood and anxiety disorders.
Careful attention should be given to correctly identifying anxiety comorbidities in patients with BD or MDD. Consideration of evidence- or consensus-based treatment recommendations for the management of both mood and anxiety symptoms is warranted.
Several studies have examined the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and anxiety disorders with inconsistent results. In order to help clarify this relationship, we investigated the association between CPA and current anxiety disorders while controlling for the following groups of factors: (1) demographics; (2) family background; (3) current socioeconomic status (SES); (4) current stressors; and (5) current mood disorders. Data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed. The sample included 12,481 respondents from the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The regional-level response rate was 84%. Fully 7.3% (n = 964) of respondents reported they had been physically abused as a child or adolescent by someone close to them and 4.4% (n = 540) reported they had been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder by a health professional. A significant association between CPA and anxiety disorders was found when controlling for demographic factors, family background, current SES and stressors (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.25, 2.08). The odds of anxiety disorders declined to non-significance when further statistical adjustments were made for current mood disorders. The findings of this research suggest that the relationship between CPA and anxiety may be largely explained by co-morbid mood disorders.
Studies using clinical and volunteer samples have reported an elevated prevalence of mood disorders in association with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Clinical studies using anxiety rating scales have reported inconsistent results, but studies using diagnostic instruments have reported that anxiety disorders may be even more strongly associated with arthritis than is depression. One study reported an association between lifetime substance use disorders and arthritis.
Data from iteration 1.2 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) were used. This was a large-scale national Canadian health survey which administered the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview to a sample of 36,984 subjects randomly selected from the national population. In the CCHS 1.2, subjects were asked whether they had been diagnosed by a health professional with arthritis or rheumatism.
Subjects reporting arthritis or rheumatism had an elevated prevalence of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. The strength of association resembled that seen in an omnibus category reporting any chronic condition, but was weaker than that seen with back pain or fibromyalgia. The effect of arthritis or rheumatism interacted with age, such that the odds ratios became smaller with increasing age. Mood and anxiety disorders, along with arthritis or rheumatism made an independent contribution to disability.
Arthritis is associated with psychiatric morbidity in the general population, and this morbidity is seen across a variety of mental disorders. The strength of association is consistent with that seen in persons with other self-reported medical conditions.
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The typical symptoms of coronary heart disease (CHD), chest pain and breathlessness, are well-known. They are considered quite dramatic, and can thus be fairly reliably mapped by a survey. However, people might have other clearly unpleasant symptoms impairing quality of life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the appearance of these complaints of working-aged people with self-reported CHD.
The study consists of a postal questionnaire of randomly selected Finns in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 50-54, a response rate of 39% (N = 15,477). The subjects were asked whether or not a doctor had told them that they had angina pectoris or had had myocardial infarction. Four randomly selected age and sex matched controls were chosen for every patient. The occurrence of self-reported dyspnoea, chest pain during anger or other kind of emotion, palpitation and perspiration without physical exercise, irregular heartbeats, flushing, trembling of hands and voice, jerking of muscles, depression and day-time sleepiness were examined. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), between occurrence of symptoms and CHD with and without heart infarction, were computed by multivariate logistic regression analysis.
The sample eventually comprised 319 CHD patients. Dyspnoea, chest pain during anger or other kind of emotion, palpitation, perspiration without physical exercise, irregular heartbeats daily or almost daily, trembling of hands and voice, and jerking of muscles occurred statistically significantly more frequently among CHD patients than among controls. The CHD patients also reported more depressive mood according to Beck's inventory scores and poorer sleep and more frequent day-time sleepiness than controls. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis chest pain during anger or other kind of emotion (ORs 4.12 and 3.61) and dyspnoea (ORs 2.33 and 3.81) were the symptoms most associated with CHD.
Working-aged people with self-reported coronary heart disease evince a number of symptoms limiting the quality of their every day life. This aspect should be paid attention to when evaluating functional capacity of these patients.
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The aim of this paper was to examine the association between exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers, in the home and the vehicle, and poor mental health outcomes (mood disorder, anxiety disorder, poor/fair mental health, and high stress).
Data were drawn from the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey, a representative sample of 62,909 Canadians 12years and older. Measures of SHS exposure are drawn from self-reported daily or near daily exposure in the home or in the vehicle. Mental health indicators include self-reported diagnosed mood and anxiety disorders, and self-report measures of overall mental health and experiences of stress. Associations between SHS exposure and poor mental health among non-smokers were examined in a series of logistic regression models. Additional analyses stratified on respondent's smoking status, physical health, and gender.
Analyses revealed that SHS exposure among non-smokers was associated with increased anxiety disorders, poor/fair mental health, and high stress, with no association to mood disorders. Stratified analyses demonstrated that associations between SHS and poor mental health are contextualized by respondent's gender, physical health, and smoking status.
Beyond changes to physical health, SHS exposure in private spaces was negatively associated with the mental health of non-smokers. Public health efforts to reduce SHS exposure in private spaces are warranted. Findings also reveal additional targets for decreasing and eliminating the societal burden of mental health disorders. Further research is needed to examine causality and to explore associations between SHS exposure and specific mental health outcomes.
A Swedish/Norwegian head and neck cancer study was designed to assess prospectively the levels of mental distress and psychiatric morbidity in a heterogeneous sample of newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients. A total of 357 patients were included. The mean age was 63 years, and 72% were males. The patients were asked to answer the HAD scale (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale) six times during 1 year. The number of possible or probable cases of anxiety or depression disorder was calculated according to standardized cut-offs. Approximately one-third of the patients scored as a possible or probable case of a major mood disorder at each measurement point during the study year. There were new cases of anxiety or depression at each time point. The anxiety level was highest at diagnosis, while depression was most common during treatment. Females were more anxious than males at diagnosis, and patients under 65 years of age scored higher than those over 65. Patients with lower performance status and more advanced disease reported higher levels of mental distress and more often scored as a probable or possible cases of psychiatric disorder. Our psychometric analyses supported the two-dimensional structure and stability of the HAD scale. The HAD scale seems to be the method of choice for getting valid information about the probability of mood disorder in head and neck cancer populations. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity found in this study emphasizes the importance of improved diagnosis and treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of affective disorders among patients hospitalised with adrenocortical insufficiency in the study period: 1977-1999. METHOD: Using data from Danish registers, two study cohorts were identified by their ICD diagnoses at discharge from hospital: one comprising all patients with a first hospital admission with an index diagnosis of adrenocortical insufficiency; the other a control cohort comprising all patients with a first hospital admission with an index diagnosis of osteoarthritis. Subsequent admissions to psychiatric hospital wards with discharge ICD diagnoses of affective disorders were used as events of interest. Rates of readmission were estimated using Poisson regression models in survival analyses. Age, sex, duration of time after index discharge, and calendar time were included as co-variables. The primary analysis included all patients with adrenocortical insufficiency. Thereafter, the subgroup of patients with primary adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease) was investigated separately in a secondary analysis. RESULTS: A study sample of 989 patients with adrenocortical insufficiency and 124,854 patients with osteoarthritis was identified. Eight hundred and fifty-two patients were subsequently readmitted with a diagnosis of affective disorder. Patients with adrenocortical insufficiency had a 2.68 (95% CI: 1.62-4.42) times greater rate of affective disorders and a 2.12 (95% CI: 1.16-3.86) times greater rate of depressive disorder when compared with the rate for patients with osteoarthritis. Patients with Addison's disease had a 2.14 (95% CI: 1.14-4.03) times greater rate of affective disorders, and a 1.71 (95% CI: 0.81-3.63) times greater rate of depressive disorder compared with the rate of patients with osteoarthritis. CONCLUSION: Patients with adrenocortical insufficiency may be at increased risk of developing severe affective disorders. Conventional replacement therapy with hydrocortisone may not be sufficient to ensure the psychiatric well-being of these patients.
Depressed mood may either precede mobility limitation or follow from mobility limitation.
To compare mood status among people with manifest mobility limitation, those with preclinical mobility limitation and those without mobility limitation and investigate factors explaining the association between depressed mood and mobility limitation.
645 community-living 75- to 81-year-old people.
Depressed mood was assessed using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, cut-off score 16); difficulty walking 500 m was assessed by self-report. Those reporting difficulty were categorised as having manifest mobility limitation. Those with no difficulty but reporting task modifications, such as reduced frequency of walking, were categorised as having preclinical mobility limitation. The association between depressed mood and mobility limitation was analysed using logistic regression analysis with gender, age, economic situation, the availability of a confidant, chronic conditions, and widespread pain as covariates.
Depressed mood was found in 34% of subjects with manifest mobility limitation, in 26% of those with preclinical mobility limitation, and in 13% of those without mobility limitation. The unadjusted odds ratio for depressed mood was 3.43 (95% CI 2.04-5.76) among subjects with manifest mobility limitation and 2.38 (95% CI 1.52-3.73) among those with preclinical mobility limitation, compared to those without mobility limitation. Adjustment for covariates reduced the risks to 2.10 (95% CI 1.15-3.82) and 1.99 (95% CI 1.24-3.20), respectively. Widespread pain explained 28% of the increased risk of depressed mood among those with manifest mobility limitation.
The dose-response relationship between depressed mood and mobility limitation suggests that both conditions may progress simultaneously and may share aetiology, at least in part. Pain may be an underlying factor in both depressed mood and mobility limitation.