Estimates of lifetime risk of suicide in mental disorders were based on selected samples with incomplete follow-up.
To estimate, in a national cohort, the absolute risk of suicide within 36 years after the first psychiatric contact.
Prospective study of incident cases followed up for as long as 36 years. Median follow-up was 18 years.
Individual data drawn from Danish longitudinal registers.
A total of 176,347 persons born from January 1, 1955, through December 31, 1991, were followed up from their first contact with secondary mental health services after 15 years of age until death, emigration, disappearance, or the end of 2006. For each participant, 5 matched control individuals were included.
Absolute risk of suicide in percentage of individuals up to 36 years after the first contact.
Among men, the absolute risk of suicide (95% confidence interval [CI]) was highest for bipolar disorder, (7.77%; 6.01%-10.05%), followed by unipolar affective disorder (6.67%; 5.72%-7.78%) and schizophrenia (6.55%; 5.85%-7.34%). Among women, the highest risk was found among women with schizophrenia (4.91%; 95% CI, 4.03%-5.98%), followed by bipolar disorder (4.78%; 3.48%-6.56%). In the nonpsychiatric population, the risk was 0.72% (95% CI, 0.61%-0.86%) for men and 0.26% (0.20%-0.35%) for women. Comorbid substance abuse and comorbid unipolar affective disorder significantly increased the risk. The co-occurrence of deliberate self-harm increased the risk approximately 2-fold. Men with bipolar disorder and deliberate self-harm had the highest risk (17.08%; 95% CI, 11.19%-26.07%).
This is the first analysis of the absolute risk of suicide in a total national cohort of individuals followed up from the first psychiatric contact, and it represents, to our knowledge, the hitherto largest sample with the longest and most complete follow-up. Our estimates are lower than those most often cited, but they are still substantial and indicate the continuous need for prevention of suicide among people with mental disorders.
Several studies have suggested that there may be an increased prevalence of affective disorders in people with motor neuron disease (MND). However, the literature is inconsistent, possibly because of small sample sizes in the existing studies. The Canadian province of Alberta has a universal health care system in which physician contacts are recorded along with ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. In this analysis, diagnostic codes indicative of MND and affective disorders were used. Stratified analysis and logistic regression were used in the analysis. There were 336 cases of MND leading to a prevalence of 14.5 per 100,000 in provincial residents > or =20 years old. Affective disorders were identified in 8.6% of the total population during the same year. The crude odds ratio for affective disorders in MND was 2.3 (95% CI = 1.7-3.0). However, the prevalence of affective disorders declined with increasing illness duration.
To investigate the temporal relationships between a range of neurological diseases and affective disorders.
Data derived from linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. Seven cohorts with neurological index diagnoses and two control group diagnoses were followed for up to 21 years. The incidences of affective disorders in the different groups were compared with the control groups, using competing risks to consider the risk of affective disorder and the risk of death in the same analysis.
We found an increased incidence of affective disorders in dementia, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage compared with control groups. The association was found to be the strongest for dementia and Parkinson's disease. In hospitalized patients, with incident multiple sclerosis, the incidence of affective disorder was lower than the incidence in the control groups.
In neurological diseases there seems to be an increased incidence of affective disorders. The elevated incidence was found to be particularly high for dementia and Parkinson's disease (neurodegenerative diseases).
BACKGROUND: Affective disorders probably have a multifactorial aetiology, both biological and psychosocial factors may be of importance at onset as well as at relapses. The aim of the study was to investigate how the age of onset of bipolar and unipolar disorder relates to family history of affective disorder, early parental separation and life events. A second purpose of this study was to analyze the importance of life events preceding the first and subsequent episodes of affective disorder. METHODS: The case records of 282 patients (161 females/121 males; mean age 56) were investigated. They all had a DSM-IV based diagnosis of either bipolar I/II (67%) or unipolar (33%) disorder. Variables, such as family history, early parental loss and life events according to Paykel life events scale, were examined. RESULTS: We found a significantly lower age of onset in bipolar patients with a family history of affective disorder (28.9 vs. 33.9 years). Bipolar patients with preceding life events had a higher age of onset (33.1 vs. 28.3 years). Moreover, bipolar patients with heredity, had less life events at onset. For the bipolar, as well as the unipolar group, life stressors more frequently preceded the first episode of affective disorder than the subsequent episodes. Limitations: The major limitation of this study is the retrospective approach, with e.g. difficulties to decide whether a life event plays a role in aetiology of affective disorder or is its consequence. CONCLUSIONS: Bipolar patients with high constitutional vulnerability have an earlier age of onset and need less stress factors to become ill. Better knowledge about the stress- and the vulnerability-factors in affective disorder might contribute to development of individually tailored therapeutic strategies in future.
A sample of anorexia nervosa (AN) cases recruited after community screening were contrasted with an age-, sex-, and school-matched comparison (COMP) group with regard to comorbidity at age 21 years, approximately 6 years after the reported onset of the eating disorder. Both groups had originally been examined at age 16 years. Most of the AN cases no longer met criteria for AN, but many continued to meet criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) or eating disorder NOS. In addition, there was a high rate of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCDs). Affective disorders had been common throughout the follow-up period, but tended to follow the course of the eating disorder rather than to precede or postdate it. Underlying personality disorders tended to predict poor outcome.
Cannabis use has been linked to anxiety and mood disorders (AMD) in clinical cases, but little research on this relationship has been reported at the epidemiological level.
We examined the relationship between self-reported frequency of cannabis use and risk for AMD in the general Ontario adult population.
Data were based on the CAMH Monitor survey of Ontario adults from 2001 to 2006 (n = 14,531). AMD was assessed with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12). Frequency of cannabis use within the past year was grouped into five categories: No use (abstainer), less than once a month but at least once a year, less than once a week but at least once a month, less than daily but at least once a week, almost every day to more than once a day. Logistic regression analysis of AMD and cannabis use was implemented while controlling for demographics and alcohol problems.
AMD was most common among heavy cannabis users (used almost every day or more) (18.1%) and lowest for abstainers (8.7%). Compared to abstainers, the risk of AMD was significantly greater for infrequent cannabis users (OR = 1.43) and heavy cannabis users (OR = 2.04) but not for those in between.
These data provide epidemiological evidence for a link between both light and heavy cannabis use and AMD.
Recognizing the comorbidity of heavy cannabis use and AMD should facilitate improved treatment efforts. Our results also suggest the possibility that, for some individuals, AMD may occur at relatively low levels of cannabis use.
Structured diagnostic inter- views include items that evaluate physical etiologies for mood and anxiety disorders. The objective of this article was to assess the impact of such items.
A mental health survey in Canada collected data from n = 36,984 household residents. The lifetime prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders was calculated with and without exclusions due to physical causes.
Approximately 10% of subjects with a lifetime depressive disorder reported that all of their episodes were due to one or more physical cause. Many of the reported etiologies were implausible given the DSM-IV requirement that the disturbance be a "direct physiological consequence" of the physical cause. The results were similar for manic episodes and anxiety disorders.
Structured diagnostic interviews assess physical etiologies in ways that are subject to inconsistency and inaccuracy. Physical etiology items may bias estimates by introducing etiological opinions into the assessment of disorder frequency.
This study quantifies the association between maternal medical conditions/illnesses and congenital heart defects (CHDs) among infants.
We carried out a population-based study of all mother-infant pairs (n=2,278,838) in Canada (excluding Quebec) from 2002 to 2010 using data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information. CHDs among infants were classified phenotypically through a hierarchical grouping of International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Canada codes. Maternal conditions such as multifetal pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and congenital heart disease were defined by use of diagnosis codes. The association between maternal conditions and CHDs and its subtypes was modeled using logistic regression with adjustment for maternal age, parity, residence, and other factors. There were 26 488 infants diagnosed with CHDs at birth or at rehospitalization in infancy; the overall CHD prevalence was 116.2 per 10,000 live births, of which the severe CHD rate was 22.3 per 10,000. Risk factors for CHD included maternal age =40 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-1.58), multifetal pregnancy (aOR, 4.53; 95% CI, 4.28-4.80), diabetes mellitus (type 1: aOR, 4.65; 95% CI, 4.13-5.24; type 2: aOR, 4.12; 95% CI, 3.69-4.60), hypertension (aOR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.61-2.03), thyroid disorders (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.26-1.67), congenital heart disease (aOR, 9.92; 95% CI, 8.36-11.8), systemic connective tissue disorders (aOR, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.23-4.06), and epilepsy and mood disorders (aOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.16-1.72). Specific CHD subtypes were associated with different maternal risk factors.
Several chronic maternal medical conditions, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, connective tissue disorders, and congenital heart disease, confer an increased risk of CHD in the offspring.
Comment In: Evid Based Med. 2014 Apr;19(2):e824282172
The study was to determine the association between mental health and the incidence of injury among Canadian immigrants and non-immigrants. We used data from 15,405 individuals aged 12 years or more, who were living in British Columbia, Canada, and participated in the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). We calculated a 12-month cumulative incidence of fall injury based on self-reporting. Logistic regression model was used to examine the association of the 12-month cumulative incidence of fall injury with immigration status and mental health before and after adjustment for covariates. The results show that self-reported mood and anxiety disorders were significantly associated with an increased incidence of fall injury. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.81 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.38) for mood disorder and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.13) for anxiety disorder. Immigrant status was a significant effect modifier for the association between mental health and fall injury, with stronger associations in immigrants than in non-immigrants especially in elderly people. People with poor self perceived health were more likely to have a fall injury. Both mental health and general health were related to fall injury. There was a stronger association between mental health and fall injury in immigrants compared with non-immigrants in the elderly. More attention should be paid to mental health in immigrants associated with fall injury.
Psychotic and mixed affective episodes are prevalent in the course of bipolar disorder. Despite many studies on the implications of psychotic mania (PM), psychotic depression (PD) and mixed affective episodes (MAE), relatively little is known about the relationship between the three subtypes. The present study aimed to investigate whether the occurrence of PM, PD and MAE were associated with one another.
This is a nationwide register-based, historical prospective cohort study. Data was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. Subjects were defined as all individuals assigned with an ICD-10 diagnosis of bipolar disorder between January 1st 1994 and December 31st 2010. Potential associations among psychotic and mixed affective episodes were tested by means of logistic regression.
We identified 14,529 individuals with bipolar disorder with lifetime incidences of PM, PD and MAE of 19%, 15% and 17% respectively. We detected significant associations between PM and MAE (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.26, p=0.003), PD and MAE (AOR=1.24, p=0.001), and PM and PD (AOR=1.28, p=0.005).
Diagnoses were assigned as part of routine clinical practice.
According to this register-based study, PD, PM and MAE are all associated with one another. This knowledge should be taken into consideration by clinicians when monitoring patients with bipolar disorder and by nosologists when defining the criteria and potential subtypes for mixed affective episodes for the upcoming DSM-5 and ICD-11.