The development of structured diagnostic instruments has been an important step for research in child and adolescent psychiatry, but the adequacy of a diagnostic instrument in a given culture does not guarantee its reliability or validity in another population. The objective of the study was to describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation into Icelandic of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL) and to test the inter-rater reliability of the adapted version. To attain cross-cultural equivalency, five important dimensions were addressed: semantic, technical, content, criterion and conceptual. The adapted Icelandic version was introduced into an inpatient clinical setting, and inter-rater reliability was estimated both at the symptom and diagnoses level, for the most frequent diagnostic categories in both international diagnostic classification systems (DSM-IV and ICD-10). The cross-cultural adaptation has provided an Icelandic version allowing similar understanding among different raters and has achieved acceptable cross-cultural equivalence. This initial study confirmed the quality of the translation and adaptation of Kiddie-SADS-PL and constitutes the first step of a larger validation study of the Icelandic version of the instrument.
Youths with an anxiety disorder, who had a primary social phobia diagnosis and those, who had a comorbid mood disorder, were more likely not to respond to manualized group CBT. Parents of those non-responding youths often considered them as motivated to overcome their difficulties, but due to their symptomatology, they were unreceptive, reluctant and ambivalent and therefore not actively involved in therapy. The non-responding youths with social phobia felt evaluated and nervous of what others thought of them in the group. The parents of the non-responding youths with a comorbid mood disorder felt the group format placed restraints on therapists' ability to focus on their individual needs.
Affect integration, or the capacity to utilize the motivational and signal properties of affect for personal adjustment, is assumed to be an important aspect of psychological health and functioning. Affect integration has been operationalized through the affect consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine discrete affects. A semistructured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI) and separate Affect Consciousness Scales (ACSs) have been developed to specifically assess these aspects of affect integration. This study explored the construct validity of AC in a Norwegian clinical sample including estimates of reliability and assessment of structure by factor analyses. External validity issues were addressed by examining the relationships between scores on the ACSs and self-rated symptom- and interpersonal problem measures as well as independent, observer-based ratings of personality disorder criteria and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
Cyclothymia was studied in 129 patients aged over 60 in the gerontology unit of an outpatient clinic in Moscow. Premanifest period of the disease was analyzed clinically to single out the functional and somatic disorders. The typology of the first cyclothymic phases and conditions of their development are described as related to the ages of the disease manifestation under 60 vs over 60. The data evidencing the polar nature of the affective disorders are presented to characterize the natural history of the ailment in senile cyclothymic patients.
Anxiety and affective disorders can be disabling and have a major impact on the ability to work. In Denmark, people with a mental disorder, and mainly non-psychotic disorders, represent a substantial and increasing part of those receiving disability pensions. Previous studies have indicated that Individual Placement and Support (IPS) has a positive effect on employment when provided to people with severe mental illness. This modified IPS intervention is aimed at supporting people with recently diagnosed anxiety or affective disorders in regaining their ability to work and facilitate their return to work or education.
To investigate whether an early modified IPS intervention has an effect on employment and education when provided to people with recently diagnosed anxiety or affective disorders in a Danish context.
The trial is a randomised, assessor-blinded, clinical superiority trial of an early modified IPS intervention in addition to treatment-as-usual compared to treatment-as-usual alone for 324 participants diagnosed with an affective disorder or anxiety disorder living in the Capital Region of Denmark. The primary outcome is competitive employment or education at 24 months. Secondary outcomes are days of competitive employment or education, illness symptoms and level of functioning including quality of life at follow-up 12 and 24 months after baseline.
If the modified IPS intervention is shown to be superior to treatment-as-usual, a larger number of disability pensions can probably be avoided and long-term sickness absences reduced, with major benefits to society and patients. This trial will add to the evidence of how best to support people's return to employment or education after a psychiatric disorder.
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 2011 Jun;68(6):400-720924024
Cites: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002 Feb;59(2):165-7211825138
Cites: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004 Mar;61(3):310-714993119
No previous study has comprehensively investigated the pattern of health care contacts among elderly subjects attempting suicide. The present study compared elderly suicide attempters with younger attempters, before and after attempted suicide, in terms of health care contacts, clinical diagnoses of mental disorders, and characteristics predicting lack of treatment contact after the index attempt.
All consecutive 1198 suicide attempters treated in hospital emergency rooms in Helsinki, Finland, from 15.1.1997 to 14.1.1998 were identified and divided into two age groups: (1) elderly suicide attempters aged 60 years or more (n = 81) and (2) suicide attempters aged under 60 years (n = 1117).
During the final 12 months before the attempt, the majority of elderly suicide attempters had a contact with primary health care, but their mood disorders were likely to have remained undiagnosed before the index attempt. In primary health care, only 4% had been diagnosed with a mood disorder before the attempt, but 57% after (p
Very little is known about the utility of psychiatric day hospitals for elderly adults with mood disorders. The objectives of this study were to evaluate a long-standing day-hospital program and to explore whether demographic and non-demographic patient characteristics were associated with treatment outcomes.
We used t-tests to compare retrospective admission and discharge data for 708 patients over a 16-year period, and multiple regression to examine predictors of improvement.
Depressed patients showed statistically and clinically significant improvements on the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The number and severity of depressive symptoms at admission were strongly related to treatment outcomes. After controlling for initial levels of depression, demographic characteristics did not predict improvement, and axis I and II diagnoses modestly and inconsistently predicted improvement.
A biopsychosocially-focused day-hospital treatment program was associated with improvements in depression in a large sample of elderly adults with mood disorders. Except for depression severity at admission, patient characteristics had very little impact on treatment outcomes, suggesting that day hospital programs are beneficial for a wide range of depressed elderly adults.
It is inferred that perinatal distress has adverse effects on the prospective mother and the health of the foetus/infant. More knowledge is needed to identify which symptoms of perinatal distress should be assessed during pregnancy and to shed light on the impact of women's satisfaction with their partner relationship on perinatal distress.
The current study aimed to generate knowledge about the association of the partner relationship and social support when women are dealing with perinatal distress expressed by symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress.
A structured interview was conducted with 562 Icelandic women who were screened three times during pregnancy with the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale. Of these, 360 had symptoms of distress and 202 belonged to a non-distress group. The women answered the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. The study had a multicentre prospective design allowing for exploration of association with perinatal distress.
Women who were dissatisfied in their partner relationship were four times more likely to experience perinatal distress. Women with perinatal distress scored highest on the DASS Stress Subscale and the second highest scores were found on the Anxiety Subscale.
Satisfaction in partner relationship is related to perinatal distress and needs to be assessed when health care professionals take care of distressed pregnant women, her partner and her family. Assessment of stress and anxiety should be included in the evaluation of perinatal distress, along with symptoms of depression.
A total of 819 students, 208 women and 210 men from Norway and 201 women and 200 men from Brazil, of whom 76.9% were in the 20- to 29-yr. age range, rated the use and efficiency of 14 strategies in regulation of emotion aimed at stopping anger, anxiety, and sadness. The same strategies were rated as most frequently used in both cultures for all three negative emotions. The most used strategies were "talking to somebody" and "saying something to oneself." Used strategies were rated as more efficient than nonused strategies; cultural variation in use of strategy was consistent with the distinction between individualism and collectivism and women's ratings supported prior research on confidence in emotions by showing use of more strategies for anxiety and sadness than men's. Ratings from an outpatient sample of 80 women (M age = 25.5 yr., SD = 4.4) and 80 men (M age = 25.4 yr., SD = 4.1) supported expectations that there would be differences between nonpatients and patients based on diagnostic characteristics of depression and anxiety.
BACKGROUND: The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is affected by socio-demographic variables such as gender, age at onset and marital status and by illness related factors as the length of previous episodes and the total duration of the illness. The present study investigated how the effect of these variables changed with the progression of the illness. METHOD: Using survival analysis, the risk of recurrence was estimated in a case register study including all hospital admissions with primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1971-1993. RESULTS: Totally, 20350 first admission patients had been discharged with a diagnosis of affective disorder, depressive or manic/circular type. Initially in the course of the illness, bipolar patients had a substantial greater risk of recurrence compared with unipolar patients. At this time, gender, age and marital status together with the total duration of the illness predicted the risk of recurrence in both unipolar and bipolar illness. Some variables had different predictive effect in the two types of illness. Later, especially the duration of the previous illness predicted the risk of recurrence. CONCLUSION: It seems as initially in the course of affective disorder socio-demographic variables such as gender, age at onset and marital status act as risk factors for further recurrence. Later, however, the illness itself seem to follow its own rhythm regardless of prior predictors. LIMITATION: The data relate to re-admissions rather than recurrence and the findings may be due to decreasing sample sizes during the course of illness. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The study underscores the importance of the illness process itself.