Rapid tests for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage are important to limit the transmission of MRSA in the health care setting. We evaluated the performance of the BD GeneOhm MRSA real-time PCR assay using a diverse collection of MRSA isolates, mainly from Copenhagen, Denmark, but also including international isolates, e.g., USA100-1100. Pure cultures of 349 MRSA isolates representing variants of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types I to V and 103 different staphylococcal protein A (spa) types were tested. In addition, 53 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates were included as negative controls. Forty-four MRSA isolates were undetectable; of these, 95% harbored SCCmec type IVa, and these included the most-common clone in Copenhagen, spa t024-sequence type 8-IVa. The false-negative MRSA isolates were tested with new primers (analyte-specific reagent [ASR] BD GeneOhm MRSA assay) supplied by Becton Dickinson (BD). The ASR BD GeneOhm MRSA assay detected 42 of the 44 isolates that were false negative in the BD GeneOhm MRSA assay. Combining the BD GeneOhm MRSA assay with the ASR BD GeneOhm MRSA assay greatly improved the results, with only two MRSA isolates being false negative. The BD GeneOhm MRSA assay alone is not adequate for MRSA detection in Copenhagen, Denmark, as more than one-third of our MRSA isolates would not be detected. We recommend that the BD GeneOhm MRSA assay be evaluated against the local MRSA diversity before being established as a standard assay, and due to the constant evolution of SCCmec cassettes, a continuous global surveillance is advisable in order to update the assay as necessary.
In an analytical-method comparison study of clinical samples, the Abbott RealTime CT new formulation assay (m2000 real-time PCR), consisting of a duplex PCR targeting different parts of the cryptic plasmid in Chlamydia trachomatis, was compared both with version 2 of the Roche Cobas TaqMan CT assay, comprising a duplex PCR for a target in the cryptic plasmid and the omp1 gene, and with the Gen-Probe Aptima Combo 2 assay (AC2) targeting the C. trachomatis 23S rRNA molecule. First-catch urine samples from Sweden were tested in Malmö, Sweden, for C. trachomatis with the m2000 real-time PCR assay and with an in-house PCR for the new variant C. trachomatis strain with a deletion in the cryptic plasmid. Aliquots of the urine samples were sent to Aarhus, Denmark, where they were further examined with the TaqMan CT and AC2 assays. A positive prevalence of 9.1% (148/1,632 urine samples examined) was detected according to the combined reference standard. The sensitivities and specificities of the three assays were as follows: for the Abbott m2000 assay, 95.3% (141/148) and 99.9% (1,483/1,485), respectively; for the Roche TaqMan assay, 82.4% (122/148) and 100.0% (1,485/1,485); and for the Gen-Probe AC2 assay, 99.3% (147/148) and 99.9% (1,484/1,485). The plasmid mutant strain was detected in 24% (36/148) of the C. trachomatis-positive samples. There is a difference in sensitivity between the new formulations of the Abbott and the Roche assays, but both assays detected the wild-type and new variant C. trachomatis strains equally well.
Cites: Euro Surveill. 2006;11(11):E061109.217213548
Cites: Euro Surveill. 2006;11(12):E061207.117213562
Cites: Sex Transm Infect. 2009 Jun;85(3):190-319060034
Comparison of the BD Viper System with XTR Technology to the Gen-Probe APTIMA COMBO 2 Assay using the TIGRIS DTS system for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine specimens.
Performances of the BD ProbeTec Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)/Neisseria Gonorrhoeae (GC) Q(x) Amplified DNA Assay reagents on a BD Viper System with XTR Technology and APTIMA COMBO 2 Assay reagents on a TIGRIS DTS platform, for detection of both CT and GC were compared.
A total of 1018 first-void urine specimens were tested for the presence of CT and GC DNA using the 2 assays.
CT was detected in 143 specimens (14%). Eight specimens exhibited discordant results, and they were divided equally between the 2 assays. Based on the original results, the overall agreement for CT was 99.2%, with 97.1% and 99.5% in agreement with positive and negative specimens, respectively. Cohen's Kappa was 0.967. GC was detected in 27 specimens (2.6%). Two specimens exhibited discordant results, and they were divided equally between the 2 assays. Based on the original results, the overall agreement was 99.8%, with 96.2% and 99.9% in agreement for positive and negative specimens, respectively. Cohen's Kappa was 0.961.
There was a high level of agreement between the systems for both CT and GC detection.
Nucleic acid tests are sensitive and specific and provide a rapid diagnosis, making them invaluable for patient and outbreak management. Multiplex PCR assays have additional advantages in providing an economical and comprehensive panel for many common respiratory viruses. Previous reports have shown the utility of the xTAG respiratory viral panel (RVP) assay manufactured by Luminex Molecular Diagnostics for this purpose. A newer generation of this kit, released in Canada in early 2010, is designed to simplify the procedure and reduce the turnaround time by about 24 h. The assay methodology and targets included in this version of the kit are different; consequently, the objective of this study was to compare the detection of a panel of respiratory viral targets using the older Luminex xTAG RVP (RVP Classic) assay with that using the newer xTAG RVP Fast assay. This study included 334 respiratory specimens that had been characterized for a variety of respiratory viral targets; all samples were tested by both versions of the RVP assay in parallel. Overall, the RVP Classic assay was more sensitive than the RVP Fast assay (88.6% and 77.5% sensitivities, respectively) for all the viral targets combined. Targets not detected by the RVP Fast assay included primarily influenza B virus, parainfluenza virus type 2, and human coronavirus 229E. A small number of samples positive for influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus B, human metapneumovirus, and parainfluenza virus type 1 were not detected by the RVP Classic assay and in general had low viral loads.
Comparison of the RealTime HIV-1, COBAS TaqMan 48 v1.0, Easy Q v1.2, and Versant v3.0 assays for determination of HIV-1 viral loads in a cohort of Canadian patients with diverse HIV subtype infections.
HIV clinics in Canada provide care to an increasing number of patients born outside of Canada with HIV-1 non-B subtype infections. Because the Easy Q HIV-1 v1.2 assay (EQ; bioM?rieux) failed to detect some non-B subtype infections, a multiassay HIV-1 viral load (VL) study was conducted with patients with diverse HIV subtype infections. Patients were enrolled from the Southern Alberta HIV Clinic (SAC), Calgary, Alberta, Canada (n = 349) and the McGill HIV Clinic (MHC), Montreal, Quebec, Canada (n = 20) and had four or five tubes of blood drawn for testing by EQ and three other commercial HIV VL assays: (i) the Versant 3.0 HIV-1 test, with the Versant 440 instrument (branched DNA [bDNA]; Siemens), (ii) the RealTime HIV-1 test, with the m2000rt instrument (m2000rt; Abbott Molecular Diagnostics), and (iii) the COBAS AmpliPrep TaqMan HIV-1 48 test (CAP-CTM; Roche Molecular Diagnostics). Blood was processed according to the individual manufacturer's requirements and stored frozen at -86?C. The HIV subtype was known for patients who had undergone HIV genotypic resistance testing (Virco, Belgium). Data analyses were done using standard statistical methods within Stata 9.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX). A total of 371 samples were tested on 369 patients, of whom 291 (81%) had a Virco genotype result of B (195; 53%) or non-B (96; 26%) subtypes A to D and F to K, as well as circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) (i.e., CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG). Most (58/78; 74%) patients of unknown subtype were recent African emigrants who likely have non-subtype B infection. Overall bias was small in pairwise Bland-Altman plots, but the limits of agreement between assays were wide. Discordant viral load results occurred for 98 samples and were due to missing values, false negatives, and significant underquantification that varied by HIV subtype. Results were obtained for all 371 samples with m2000rt, but for only 357 (97%) with CAP-CTM, 338 (92%) with EQ, and 276 (75%) with bDNA due to errors/equipment failures. False-negative results (nondetection of viral RNA versus other assay results) occurred for all platforms, as follows: for m2000rt, 8 (2%) [B(4) and non-B(4) subtypes], CAP-CTM, 9 (2.5%) [B(6) and non-B(3) subtypes]; EQ, 20 (6%) [B(7) and non-B(13) subtypes]; bDNA, 5 (2%) [B(1) and C(4)]. EQ and bDNA had the highest rates of underquantification by = 1.0 log(10) copies/ml, mainly for HIV non-B subtypes. Performance significantly varied between HIV VL platforms according to subtype. HIV viral diversity in the population being tested must be considered in selection of the viral load platform.
Cites: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2008 Nov;24(11):1365-7318928395
In this study, the usability and performance of three commercially available multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection of major enteric viruses were investigated. In total, 481 fecal specimens were analyzed using the Allplex™ GI Virus Assay, the Rida®Gene Viral Stool Panel I, and the FTD Viral Gastroenteritis. The overall agreement between the assays was 99.9%. Despite convergent analytical performance, differences between the multiplex RT-PCR assays were apparent when considering their suitability for routine diagnostics.
The longitudinal epidemiological development of the new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis was studied after appropriate testing procedures had been introduced when the strain was detected in 2006.
The number of cases of the new variant of C trachomatis was followed from 2007 through 2011 from the laboratory records. Testing for C trachomatis is centralised to one laboratory with around 80-85 000 persons being tested annually in a population of 1.1 million.
During the 5-year period, 410 973 patients were tested of which 25 723 cases were positive. The proportion of the new variant of all positive cases declined from 30% in 2007 to 6% in 2011. While the number of the new variant of C trachomatis declined, the ordinary wild-type strains remained largely unchanged.
A selective decline of the new variant of C trachomatis has occurred after appropriate laboratory testing was introduced. A new balance point between 5% and 10% for the new variant seems to be gradually approached.
Influenza C virus can cause both upper and lower respiratory tract infections and has been reported to be prevalent in children. However, these infections have been under-diagnosed, and epidemiological data available are limited due to the lack of convenient detection assays.
Design and validate a real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rt RT-PCR) assay for the detection of influenza C.
Respiratory samples from two primary settings, namely, children who were hospitalized or seen in the emergency department, and respiratory outbreaks for which no other viral etiology was found were used for the detection of influenza C.
The assay was sensitive and specific for the detection of influenza C. Eleven of 474 (2·32%) patients, all less than 10 years of age, were positive for influenza C. The strains clustered into two lineages, namely C/Kanagawa and C/Sao Paulo, based upon sequencing of the hemagglutinin-esterase gene. Epidemiological data showed that a higher proportion of influenza C infections occur in younger children and during the winter months. This is the first report of the detection of influenza C in Alberta, Canada, and suggests that the detection of this virus should be included in respiratory virus testing panels.
The diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) requires the detection of toxigenic C. difficile or its toxins and a clinical assessment. We evaluated the performance of four nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) detecting toxigenic C. difficile directly from faeces compared to routine toxigenic culture. In total, 300 faecal samples from Danish hospitalised patients with diarrhoea were included consecutively. Culture was performed in duplicate (routine and 'expanded toxigenic culture': prolonged and/or re-culture) and genotypic toxin profiling by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR ribotyping and toxinotyping (TT) were performed on culture-positive samples. In parallel, the samples were analysed by four NAATs; two targeting tcdA or tcdB (illumigene C. difficile and PCRFast C. difficile A/B) and two multi-target real-time (RT) PCR assays also targeting cdt and tcdC alleles characteristic of epidemic and potentially more virulent PCR ribotypes 027, 066 and 078 (GeneXpert C. difficile/Epi and an 'in-house RT PCR' two-step algorithm). The multi-target assays were significantly more sensitive compared to routine toxigenic culture (p?95%), and in-house PCR displayed 100% correct identification of PCR ribotypes 066 and 078. Furthermore, the presence of the PCR enhancer bovine serum albumin (BSA) was found to be related to high sensitivity and low inhibition rate. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of toxigenic C. difficile by RT PCR was accurate.
The current diagnostic marker of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), the Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato antibody index (AI) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), has insufficient sensitivity in the early phase of LNB. We aimed to elucidate the diagnostic value of PCR for B. burgdorferisensu lato in CSF from children with symptoms suggestive of LNB and to explore B. burgdorferisensu lato genotypes associated with LNB in children. Children were prospectively included in predefined groups with a high or low likelihood of LNB based on diagnostic guidelines (LNB symptoms, CSF pleocytosis, and B. burgdorferisensu lato antibodies) or the detection of other causative agents. CSF samples were analyzed by two B. burgdorferisensu lato-specific real-time PCR assays and, if B. burgdorferisensu lato DNA was detected, were further analyzed by five singleplex real-time PCR assays for genotype determination. For children diagnosed as LNB patients (58 confirmed and 18 probable) (n = 76) or non-LNB controls (n = 28), the sensitivity and specificity of PCR for B. burgdorferisensu lato in CSF were 46% and 100%, respectively. B. burgdorferisensu lato DNA was detected in 26/58 (45%) children with AI-positive LNB and in 7/12 (58%) children with AI-negative LNB and symptoms of short duration. Among 36 children with detectable B. burgdorferisensu lato DNA, genotyping indicated Borrelia garinii (n = 27) and non-B. garinii (n = 1) genotypes, while 8 samples remained untyped. Children with LNB caused by B. garinii did not have a distinct clinical picture. The rate of detection of B. burgdorferisensu lato DNA in the CSF of children with LNB was higher than that reported previously. PCR for B. burgdorferisensu lato could be a useful supplemental diagnostic tool in unconfirmed LNB cases with symptoms of short duration. B. garinii was the predominant genotype in children with LNB.