Cherniss's pioneering research on burnout, based on grounded theory, focused specifically on competence crisis among new graduates, and identified negative attitude changes as the core phenomenon in the progression from competence crisis into early career burnout. In this model, the two main burnout dimensions of exhaustion and dysfunctional coping are ordered sequentially; i.e., initial exhaustion develops, due to dysfunctional coping (cynicism and disengagement), into burnout.
To test the sequential-developmental model of burnout originally proposed by Cherniss, using a psychometric approach.
A sample of 933 early-career nursing professionals, recruited from a Swedish population-based cohort (response rate 81%), were assessed three years after graduation, using items from a burnout inventory. Data were analysed using the Rasch measurement model.
The psychometric tests showed that data adhere to a sequential-developmental model when examined using the one-parameter item response approach. When tested against external variables, the prevalence of low mood, low levels of job performance and health problems increased monotonically along this sequential-developmental model of early career burnout.
Among early-career nursing professionals burnout may be operationalized as a one-dimensional sequential-developmental model. This model resembles the results found in the literature on transition and socialization, and the association between these psychometric results and studies on nursing students' transition and socialization into working life are discussed.
An intervention based on the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change (TTM) used an indigenous helper (a helping relationship) to promote smoking cessation. The research examined whether there was a difference in post-intervention smoking behavior between smokers who had an indigenous helper compared with those who did not among adult FreshStart participants. Smoking behavior was measured in two ways: forward movement along the TTM stages of change, and point prevalence. A two-group, two-time, five-week multi-site experimental design was used. Participants (N=111) completed instruments at baseline and four weeks. The findings did not support use of the TTM construct helping relationships for smoking cessation. The use of a helping relationship did not predict smoking cessation. Nicotine replacement therapy and/or bupropion predicted smoking behavior in all analyses.
Bullshit-sensitivity is the ability to distinguish pseudo-profound bullshit sentences (e.g. "Your movement transforms universal observations") from genuinely profound sentences (e.g. "The person who never made a mistake never tried something new"). Although bullshit-sensitivity has been linked to other individual difference measures, it has not yet been shown to predict any actual behavior. We therefore conducted a survey study with over a thousand participants from a general sample of the Swedish population and assessed participants' bullshit-receptivity (i.e. their perceived meaningfulness of seven bullshit sentences) and profoundness-receptivity (i.e. their perceived meaningfulness of seven genuinely profound sentences), and used these variables to predict two types of prosocial behavior (self-reported donations and a decision to volunteer for charity). Despite bullshit-receptivity and profoundness-receptivity being positively correlated with each other, logistic regression analyses showed that profoundness-receptivity had a positive association whereas bullshit-receptivity had a negative association with both types of prosocial behavior. These relations held up for the most part when controlling for potentially intermediating factors such as cognitive ability, time spent completing the survey, sex, age, level of education, and religiosity. The results suggest that people who are better at distinguishing the pseudo-profound from the actually profound are more prosocial.
Identification of the second of two targets is impaired if it is presented less than about 500 ms after the first. Theoretical accounts of this second-target deficit, known as attentional blink (AB), have relied on some form of limited attentional resource that is allocated to the leading target at the expense of the trailing target. Three experiments in the present study reveal a failure of resource-limitation accounts to explain why the AB is absent when the targets consist of a stream of three items belonging to the same category (e.g., letters or digits). The AB is reinstated, however, if an item from a different category is inserted in the target string. This result, and all major results in the AB literature, is explained by the hypothesis that the AB arises from a temporary loss of control over the prevailing attentional set. This lapse in control renders the observer vulnerable to an exogenously-triggered switch in attentional set.