CONCLUSION: The preoperative three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the pituitary adenoma together with pituitary gland, optic nerves, carotid arteries, and the sphenoid sinuses was adopted for routine use in our institution for all pituitary surgery patients. It gave the surgeon a more profound orientation to the individual surgical field compared with the use of conventional 2D images only. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of 3D surgical planning for pituitary adenoma surgery using readily available resources. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 40 consecutive patients with pituitary adenoma were used to construct 3D models to be used in preoperative planning and during the surgery. A freely available, open source program (3D Slicer) downloaded to a conventional personal computer (PC) was applied. RESULTS: The authors present a brief description of the 3D reconstruction-based surgical planning workflow. In addition to the preoperative planning the 3D model was used as a 'road map' during the operation. With the 3D model the surgeon was more confident when opening the sellar wall and when evacuating the tumor from areas in contact with vital structures than when using only conventional 2D images.
Research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is challenging for several reasons; in particular, the heterogeneity between patients regarding causes, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome. Advances in basic science have failed to translate into successful clinical treatments, and the evidence underpinning guideline recommendations is weak. Because clinical research has been hampered by non-standardised data collection, restricted multidisciplinary collaboration, and the lack of sensitivity of classification and efficacy analyses, multidisciplinary collaborations are now being fostered. Approaches to deal with heterogeneity have been developed by the IMPACT study group. These approaches can increase statistical power in clinical trials by up to 50% and are also relevant to other heterogeneous neurological diseases, such as stroke and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Rather than trying to limit heterogeneity, we might also be able to exploit it by analysing differences in treatment and outcome between countries and centres in comparative effectiveness research. This approach has great potential to advance care in patients with TBI.
Two hereditary conditions, familial British dementia (FBD) and familial Danish dementia (FDD), are associated with amyloid deposition in the central nervous system and neurodegeneration. The two amyloid proteins, ABri and ADan, are degradation products of the same precursor molecule BriPP bearing different genetic defects, namely a Stop-to-Arg mutation in FBD and a ten-nucleotide duplication-insertion immediately before the stop codon in FDD. Both de novo created amyloid peptides have the same length (34 amino acids) and the same post-translational modification (pyroglutamate) at their N-terminus. Neurofibrillary tangles containing the classical paired helical filaments as well as neuritic components in many instances co-localize with the amyloid deposits. In both disorders, the pattern of hyperphosphorylated tau immunoreactivity is almost indistinguishable from that seen in Alzheimer's disease. These issues argue for the primary importance of the amyloid deposits in the mechanism(s) of neuronal cell loss. We propose FBD and FDD, the chromosome 13 dementia syndromes, as models to study the molecular basis of neurofibrillary degeneration, cell death and amyloid formation in the brain.
In this article, a particular emphasis has been placed on the conceptual development and understanding of the unique pathogenic changes that are indigenous to the striatal dopaminergic neurons as an important etiological factor in human Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as on the understanding of their clinical implications. Specifically, I have discussed the etiological roles of central nervous system dopamine oxidation in PD, along with a critical review of the available evidence in support of the proposed hypotheses. The chemically-reactive dopamine quinone/semiquinone intermediates are known to be highly neurotoxic and potentially genotoxic. There is considerable evidence for the suggestion that the long-term use of levodopa accelerates the progression of PD. In comparison, centrally-acting non-catechol dopamine receptor agonists would be an excellent alternative to levodopa for the treatment of PD (particularly for late-stage PD) because these agents would not undergo redox cycling to cause oxidative neuronal damage. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated methylation metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters is a crucial first-line detoxification pathway, and its role in the causation and prevention of PD is also discussed. On the basis of the modulation of COMT-mediated methylation of catecholamines, it is mechanistically explained that hyperhomocysteinemia would be a pathogenic factor in PD whereas vitamins B6, B12, and folate would be a protective factor. Lastly, according to the mechanistic understanding developed here, a novel dietary strategy is proposed that is specifically tailored toward lowering the risk of human PD, which includes eating a nutritionally-balanced diet that contains adequate (but not excessive) amounts of fruits and vegetables, along with adequate dietary supplementation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, vitamins C, B6, B12, and folate. It is believed that these conceptual developments would also aid in our better understanding of other age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases.
F-11 lubricant is used in synthetic fibers industry for the polyamide fibers processing. LD50 in intragastric administration is over 11,000 mg/kg. Acute action threshold (limac) is 180 mg/m3 (as evidenced by changes of the investigatory reflex). Chronic action threshold (limch) is 100 mg/m3. MAC in the air is 5 mg/m3, hazard class III. F-11 lubricant is a moderately hazardous chemical compound.
We present a single case study of an Arabic/French bilingual patient, ZT, who, at the age of 32, suffered a cerebral vascular accident that resulted in a massive infarct in the left peri-sylvian region. ZT's reading displays the characteristics of the deep dyslexia syndrome in both languages, that is, production of semantic, visual, and morphological errors, and concreteness effect in reading aloud and impossibility of reading nonwords. In the first part of this paper, using a three-route model of reading, we account for the patient's performance by positing functional lesions, which affect the non-lexical, the semantic lexical and the non-semantic lexical routes of reading. Phonological priming observed in a cross-language visual lexical decision task indicates that implicit assembled phonological recoding is possible. The above lesions and implicit nonword reading characterize the output form of deep dyslexia. However, error distribution reveals dissociations across languages (e.g. the semantic error rate is higher in French whereas translations are more frequent in the Arabic testing) that cannot be accounted for within a three-route model. In the second part, extensions to Plaut and Shallice's connectionist model (Cognitive Neuropsychology, 10 (5) (1993) 377) are proposed to account for the translinguistic errors observed. ZT's error distribution is compared to that obtained by Plaut and Shallice after lesions had been applied at different locations through the 40-60 network. The overall syndrome of deep dyslexia found in both languages is explained as resulting from lesions along the direct (O-->I) and output (S-->Ip, Ip-->P) pathways of reading. Lesions along the output pathway mostly affecting S-->Ip connections in French and Ip-->P connections in Arabic account for discrepancies in ZT's error pattern across tasks and languages. This case study demonstrates the superiority of a connectionist approach for predicting the error pattern in deep dyslexia.
The objective of this study was to develop valid prognostic models to predict mortality, dependency, and "death or dependency" for use in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease (PD).
The models were developed in the Parkinsonism Incidence in North-East Scotland study (UK, 198 patients) and validated in the ParkWest study (Norway, 192 patients), cohorts that attempted to identify and follow-up all new PD cases in the study area. Dependency was defined using the Schwab & England scale. We selected variables measured at time of diagnosis to include in the models. Internal validation and external validation were performed by calculating C-statistics (discrimination) and plotting observed versus predicted risk in quantiles of predicted risk (calibration).
Older age, male sex, increased severity of axial features, and Charlson comorbidity index were independent prognostic factors in the mortality model. Increasing age, higher smoking history, increased severity of axial features, and lower MMSE score were independent predictors in the models of dependency and "death or dependency." Each model had very good internal calibration and very good or good discrimination (internal and external C-statistics for the models were 0.73-0.75 and 0.68-0.78, respectively). Although each model clearly separated patients into groups according to risk, they tended to overestimate risk in ParkWest. The models were recalibrated to the baseline risk in the ParkWest study and then calibrated well in this cohort.
We have previously reported a robust association between an allelic haplotype of 'Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1' (DISC1) and schizophrenia in a nationwide collection of Finnish schizophrenia families. This specific DISC1 allele was later identified to associate with visual working memory, selectively in males. DISC1 association to schizophrenia has since been replicated in multiple independent study samples from different populations. In this study, we conditioned our sample of Finnish families for the presence of the Finnish tentative risk allele for DISC1 and re-analyzed our genome-wide scan data of 443 markers on the basis of this stratification. Two additional loci displayed an evidence of linkage (LOD > 3) and included a locus on 16p13, proximal to the gene encoding NDE1, which has been shown to biologically interact with DISC1. Although none of the observed linkages remained significant after multiple test correction through simulation, further analysis of NDE1 revealed an association between a tag-haplotype and schizophrenia (P = 0.00046) specific to females, which proved to be significant (P = 0.011) after multiple test correction. Our finding would support the concept that initial gene findings in multifactorial diseases will assist in the identification of other components of complex genetic etiology. Notably, this and other converging lines of evidence underline the importance of DISC1-related functional pathways in the etiology of schizophrenia.
Hallucinations are a common feature of certain degenerative diseases with a risk of dementia such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, and Parkinson's disease. Obtaining valid epidemiological data is nevertheless quite difficult because of methodological problems. As a rule, hallucinations are more prevalent in Lewy body disease than Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. The prevalence in parkinsonian dementia is about the same as in Lewy body disease. Complex visual hallucinations predominate, auditory or tactile hallucinations are more exceptional. Minor forms (illusions, sensation of presence) are also observed. Recurrence is common, mainly in the evening or at night. Patients with advanced mental impairment generally take the hallucinations for reality. The hallucinations can be associated with psychological and behavioral disorders such as delusionnal idea or identification disorders. It is important to search for other causes of hallucinations such as drugs, ocular disorders, or depression, but many of these disorders are common comorbidities in elderly patients with degenerative disease. There is no unique model fitting all the hypothesized pathogenic mechanisms. Complex visual hallucinations most likely arise from abnormal activation of the extra-striat temporal associative regions, but only hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed. Genetic studies and functional imaging have not provided convincing evidence. Current focus is placed on an imbalance between deficient cholinergic transmission and preserved or augmented monoaminergic transmission at the cortical level, but other neurotransmission systems could be involved. The dream dysregulation mechanism proposed in Parkinson's disease cannot be generalized. The link between cognitive disorders and hallucination is also poorly understood: hallucinations are associated with more severe cognitive impairments or more rapid cognitive deline in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, but the association with specific cognitive disorders remains to be fully explored.
In order to clarify the role of inactivating and noninactivating K+ conductances in nonspiking neurons, we developed an isopotential model of the Drosophila photoreceptor membrane based on Hodgkin-Huxley-type equations. The model includes voltage dependent potassium conductances, the shaker (gKA) and the delayed rectifier (gKs). The model parameters were derived from published results by Hardie and coworkers and nearly identical model was used also in our previous work (J. E. Niven, M. Vähäsöyrinki, M. Kauranen, R. C. Hardie, M. Juusola, and M. Weckström. The Contribution of shaker K+ channels to the information capacity of Drosophila photoreceptors. Nature. 421:630-634, 2003). The model explains how the two types of channels function together to define the voltage dependent properties of the photoreceptor membrane. Additionally the model enables us to run simulations of conditions which are difficult to achieve in patch clamp, like prolonged membrane depolarizations by light adaptation. Effects of the activation of the delayed rectifier type conductance were found to be in accordance with published experimental work but the inactivation of the shaker channels, in addition to its importance in the determination of the resting potential, produced voltage amplification over equivalent passive membrane under dark adapted conditions. This phenomenon was not present in light adapted conditions. The modulation of the voltage dependence of the conductances as reported by serotonin (5-HT) caused the shaker to act essentially like the delayed rectifier conductance.