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131I content in the human thyroid estimated from direct measurements of the inhabitants of Russian areas contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30700
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105(1-4):623-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
A A Bratilova
I A Zvonova
M I Balonov
N G Shishkanov
V I Trushin
M. Hoshi
Author Affiliation
Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Mira st. 8, 197136, St Petersburg, Russia. bratilov@comset.net
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105(1-4):623-6
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Computer simulation
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Male
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Radioactive fallout - analysis
Radiometry - methods
Russia
Thyroid Gland - metabolism
Ukraine
Abstract
The method of processing and the results of measurements of 131I content in the thyroids of Russian people performed in May-June 1986 are presented. The contribution of radiation from Cs radionuclides in the human body was taken into account in the processing of measurement data with an SRP-68-01 device. The greatest individual 131I content was found in the thyroids of inhabitants of the Bryansk region, up to 250-350 kBq, and in the Tula and Orel regions, up to 100 kBq. The average 131I thyroid activity in the middle of May 1986 reached 80 kBq for inhabitants of some settlements in the Bryansk region, 5-8 kBq in the Tula region and 5 kBq in the Orel region.
PubMed ID
14527038 View in PubMed
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Accumulated body burden and endogenous release of lead in employees of a lead smelter.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209372
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Feb;105(2):224-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1997
Author
D E Fleming
D. Boulay
N S Richard
J P Robin
C L Gordon
C E Webber
D R Chettle
Author Affiliation
Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Feb;105(2):224-33
Date
Feb-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Body Burden
Bone and Bones - chemistry
Calcaneus - chemistry
Canada
Female
Humans
Lead - analysis - blood
Male
Metallurgy
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Occupational Exposure
Tibia - chemistry
Abstract
Bone lead levels for 367 active and 14 retired lead smelter workers were measured in vivo by X-ray fluorescence in May-June 1994. The bone sites of study were the tibia and calcaneus; magnitudes of concentration were used to gauge lead body burden. Whole blood lead readings from the workers generated a cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) that approximated the level of lead exposure over time. Blood lead values for 204 of the 381 workers were gathered from workers returning from a 10-month work interruption that ended in 1991; their blood level values were compared to their tibia and calcaneus lead levels. The resulting relations allowed constraints to be placed on the endogenous release of lead from bone in smelter works. Calcaneus lead levels were found to correlate strongly with those for tibia lead, and in a manner consistent with observations from other lead industry workers. Relations between bone lead concentration and CBLI demonstrated a distinctly nonlinear appearance. When the active population was divided by date of hire, a significant difference in the bone lead-CBLI slope emerged. After a correction to include the component of CBLI existing before the workers' employment at the smelter was made, this difference persisted. This implies that the transfer of lead from blood to bone in the workers has changed over time, possibly as a consequence of varying exposure conditions.
Notes
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PubMed ID
9105798 View in PubMed
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Acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment provides insight into the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70794
Source
Am J Pathol. 2005 Feb;166(2):467-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Morten A Karsdal
Kim Henriksen
Mette G Sørensen
Jeppe Gram
Sophie Schaller
Morten H Dziegiel
Anne-Marie Heegaard
Palle Christophersen
Thomas J Martin
Claus Christiansen
Jens Bollerslev
Author Affiliation
Nordic Bioscience A/S, Herlev Hovedgade 207, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark. mk@nordicbioscience.com
Source
Am J Pathol. 2005 Feb;166(2):467-76
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acid Phosphatase - metabolism
Adult
Animals
Bone Density
Bone resorption
Bone and Bones
Cathepsins - pharmacology
Cells, Cultured
Chloride Channels - antagonists & inhibitors - metabolism
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Family Health
Female
Humans
Immunohistochemistry
Indicators and Reagents - pharmacology
Isoenzymes - metabolism
Macrolides - pharmacology
Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor - metabolism
Macrophages - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Mutation
Osteoclasts - metabolism
Osteopetrosis - genetics
Ovary - metabolism
Oxazines - pharmacology
Phenotype
Phenylurea Compounds - pharmacology
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Tetrazoles - pharmacology
Time Factors
Xanthenes - pharmacology
Abstract
Patients with defective osteoclastic acidification have increased numbers of osteoclasts, with decreased resorption, but bone formation that remains unchanged. We demonstrate that osteoclast survival is increased when acidification is impaired, and that impairment of acidification results in inhibition of bone resorption without inhibition of bone formation. We investigated the role of acidification in human osteoclastic resorption and life span in vitro using inhibitors of chloride channels (NS5818/NS3696), the proton pump (bafilomycin) and cathepsin K. We found that bafilomycin and NS5818 dose dependently inhibited acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment and bone resorption. Inhibition of bone resorption by inhibition of acidification, but not cathepsin K inhibition, augmented osteoclast survival, which resulted in a 150 to 300% increase in osteoclasts compared to controls. We investigated the effect of inhibition of osteoclastic acidification in vivo by using the rat ovariectomy model with twice daily oral dosing of NS3696 at 50 mg/kg for 6 weeks. We observed a 60% decrease in resorption (DPYR), increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase levels, and no effect on bone formation evaluated by osteocalcin. We speculate that attenuated acidification inhibits dissolution of the inorganic phase of bone and results in an increased number of nonresorbing osteoclasts that are responsible for the coupling to normal bone formation. Thus, we suggest that acidification is essential for normal bone remodeling and that attenuated acidification leads to uncoupling with decreased bone resorption and unaffected bone formation.
PubMed ID
15681830 View in PubMed
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Adaptive sex ratio variation in pre-industrial human (Homo sapiens) populations?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203426
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 1998 Apr 7;265(1396):563-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-7-1998
Author
V. Lummaa
J. Merilä
A. Kause
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Turku, Finland. virpi.lummaa@utu.fi
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 1998 Apr 7;265(1396):563-8
Date
Apr-7-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Birth rate
Female
Finland
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
Humans
Male
Models, Biological
Population Dynamics
Reproduction
Sex ratio
Sexual Behavior - history
Abstract
Sex allocation theory predicts that in a population with a biased operational sex ratio (OSR), parents will increase their fitness by adjusting the sex ratio of their progeny towards the rarer sex, until OSR has reached a level where the overproduction of either sex no longer increases a parent's probability of having grandchildren. Furthermore, in a monogamous mating system, a biased OSR is expected to lead to lowered mean fecundity among individuals of the more abundant sex. We studied the influence of OSR on the sex ratio of newborns and on the population birth rate using an extensive data set (n = 14,420 births) from pre-industrial (1775-1850) Finland. The overall effect of current OSR on sex ratio at birth was significant, and in the majority of the 21 parishes included in this study, more sons were produced when males were rarer than females. This suggests that humans adjusted the sex ratio of their offspring in response to the local OSR to maximize the reproductive success of their progeny. Birth rate and, presumably, also population growth rate increased when the sex ratio (males:females) among reproductive age classes approached equality. However, the strength of these patterns varied across the parishes, suggesting that factors other than OSR (e.g. socioeconomic or environmental factors may also have influenced the sex ratio at birth and the birth rate.
Notes
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PubMed ID
9881467 View in PubMed
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Adaptive variation in senescence: reproductive lifespan in a wild salmon population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6679
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2004 Feb 7;271(1536):259-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-7-2004
Author
Andrew P Hendry
Yolanda E Morbey
Ole K Berg
John K Wenburg
Author Affiliation
Redpath Museum and Department of Biology, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. andrew.hendry@mcgill.ca
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2004 Feb 7;271(1536):259-66
Date
Feb-7-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Age Factors
Aging - physiology
Alaska
Animals
Body Composition
Comparative Study
Female
Game Theory
Genetics, Population
Microsatellite Repeats - genetics
Models, Biological
Nesting Behavior - physiology
Reproduction - physiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Salmon - physiology
Selection (Genetics)
Abstract
The antagonistic pleiotropy theory of senescence postulates genes or traits that have opposite effects on early-life and late-life performances. Because selection is generally weaker late in life, genes or traits that improve early-life performance but impair late-life performance should come to predominate. Variation in the strength of age-specific selection should then generate adaptive variation in senescence. We demonstrate this mechanism by comparing early and late breeders within a population of semelparous capital-breeding sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). We show that early breeders (but not late breeders) are under strong selection for a long reproductive lifespan (RLS), which facilitates defence of their nests against disturbance by later females. Accordingly, early females invest less energy in egg production while reserving more for nest defence. Variation along this reproductive trade-off causes delayed or slower senescence in early females (average RLS of 26 days) than in late females (reproductive lifespan of 12 days). We use microsatellites to confirm that gene flow is sufficiently limited between early and late breeders to allow adaptive divergence in response to selection. Because reproductive trade-offs should be almost universal and selection acting on them should typically vary in time and space, the mechanism described herein may explain much of the natural variation in senescence.
PubMed ID
15058436 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Am J Kidney Dis. 2003 Jul;42(1 Suppl):42-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2003
Author
Rita Suri
Thomas A Depner
Peter G Blake
A Paul Heidenheim
Robert M Lindsay
Author Affiliation
Optimal Dialysis Research Unit, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Am J Kidney Dis. 2003 Jul;42(1 Suppl):42-8
Date
Jul-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Appointments and Schedules
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hemodialysis, Home - methods
Humans
Kidney Failure, Chronic - blood - therapy
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Ontario - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Treatment Outcome
Urea - blood
Abstract
Several methods exist to quantitate small-solute clearance by daily hemodialysis (HD) regimens, but these have not been empirically applied or compared.
In the London Daily/Nocturnal Hemodialysis Study, dosing and adequacy of quotidian HD regimens, both short daily HD (n = 11) and long nocturnal HD (n = 12), were compared with conventional thrice-weekly HD (n = 22) using several models. Urea clearance was computed by percentage of reduction in urea, kinetic modeling (single-pool Kt/V [spKt/V]), Daugirdas rate equation (equilibrated Kt/V [eKt/V]), and Gotch standardized Kt/V (stdKt/V).
Nocturnal HD patients maintained a mean single-session spKt/V of 1.64 throughout the study, similar to that of conventional HD patients (1.73), whereas daily HD patients showed a significant decrease in mean single-session spKt/V (0.93) compared with baseline (t(0)) values. Mean weekly spKt/V values increased from t(0) for both quotidian HD groups (9.08 for nocturnal HD, 5.55 for daily HD) and were higher in both quotidian HD groups compared with conventional HD patients. Weekly eKt/V, stdKt/V, and normalized protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance values showed similar trends. Comparison of the 3 different adequacy models showed an increase in weekly HD doses for both quotidian HD regimens compared with conventional HD; however, percentages of increases from t(0) to follow-up differed according to the model used. The calculated efficiency of dose delivery at the 10-month follow-up comparing daily HD with conventional HD was 257 +/- 26 minutes versus 306 +/- 17 stdKt/V unit delivered, respectively, amounting to almost 1 dialysis-hour saved per stdKt/V unit delivered for daily HD.
These results show that both quotidian HD regimens are more effective than conventional HD in improving weekly urea clearance measured by spKt/V, stdKt/V, and eKt/V.
PubMed ID
12830443 View in PubMed
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Adherence to antidepressants among women and men described with trajectory models: a Swedish longitudinal study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280407
Source
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Nov;72(11):1381-1389
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2016
Author
Ann-Charlotte Mårdby
Linus Schiöler
Karolina Andersson Sundell
Pernilla Bjerkeli
Eva Lesén
Anna K Jönsson
Source
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Nov;72(11):1381-1389
Date
Nov-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Citalopram - therapeutic use
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Medication Adherence - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Social Class
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The purpose of this study are to analyse adherence to antidepressant treatment over 2 years in Sweden among women and men who initiated treatment with citalopram and to identify groups at risk of non-adherence using trajectory models.
The study population, including individuals 18-85 years who initiated citalopram use between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2007, was identified in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and followed for 2 years. Adherence was estimated with continuous measure of medication acquisition (CMA) and group-based trajectory modelling, a method which describes adherence patterns over time by estimating trajectories of adherence and the individual's probability of belonging to a specific trajectory.
The study population included 54,248 individuals, 64 % women. Mean CMA was 52 % among women and 50 % among men (p 
PubMed ID
27488388 View in PubMed
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Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100200
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Nov 2;107(44):18755-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2-2010
Author
Daniel A Stolper
Niels Peter Revsbech
Donald E Canfield
Author Affiliation
Nordic Center for Earth Evolution and Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Nov 2;107(44):18755-60
Date
Nov-2-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aerobiosis - physiology
Escherichia coli K12 - physiology
Models, Biological
Oxygen - metabolism
Abstract
Molecular oxygen (O(2)) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the "Great Oxidation" of the Earth's surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of = 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history of aerobic organisms.
PubMed ID
20974919 View in PubMed
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Age-period-cohort models for the Lexis diagram.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166016
Source
Stat Med. 2007 Jul 10;26(15):3018-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-10-2007
Author
B. Carstensen
Author Affiliation
Steno Diabetes Center, Niels Steensens Vej 2, DK 2820 Gentofte, Denmark. bxc@steno.dk
Source
Stat Med. 2007 Jul 10;26(15):3018-45
Date
Jul-10-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Epidemiologic Methods
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Models, Statistical
Testicular Neoplasms - epidemiology
Abstract
Analysis of rates from disease registers are often reported inadequately because of too coarse tabulation of data and because of confusion about the mechanics of the age-period-cohort model used for analysis. Rates should be considered as observations in a Lexis diagram, and tabulation a necessary reduction of data, which should be as small as possible, and age, period and cohort should be treated as continuous variables. Reporting should include the absolute level of the rates as part of the age-effects. This paper gives a guide to analysis of rates from a Lexis diagram by the age-period-cohort model. Three aspects are considered separately: (1) tabulation of cases and person-years; (2) modelling of age, period and cohort effects; and (3) parametrization and reporting of the estimated effects. It is argued that most of the confusion in the literature comes from failure to make a clear distinction between these three aspects. A set of recommendations for the practitioner is given and a package for R that implements the recommendations is introduced.
Notes
Comment In: Stat Med. 2008 Apr 30;27(9):1557-61; author reply 1561-417847157
PubMed ID
17177166 View in PubMed
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1007 records – page 1 of 101.