The 39 item Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) is the most widely used patient reported rating scale in Parkinson's disease. However, several fundamental measurement assumptions necessary for confident use and interpretation of the eight PDQ-39 scales have not been fully addressed.
Postal survey PDQ-39 data from 202 people with Parkinson's disease (54% men; mean age 70 years) were analysed regarding psychometric properties using traditional and Rasch measurement methods.
Data quality was good (mean missing item responses, 2%) and there was general support for the legitimacy of summing items within scales without weighting or standardisation. Score reliabilities were adequate (Cronbach's alpha 0.72-0.95; test-retest 0.76-0.93). The validity of the current grouping of items into scales was not supported by scaling success rates (mean 56.2%), or factor and Rasch analyses. All scales represented more health problems than that experienced by the sample (mean floor effect 15%) and showed compromised score precision towards the less severe end.
Our results provide general support for the acceptability and reliability of the PDQ-39. However, they also demonstrate limitations that have implications for the use of the PDQ-39 in clinical research. The grouping of items into scales appears overly complex and the meaning of scale scores is unclear, which hampers their interpretation. Suboptimal targeting limits measurement precision and, therefore, probably also responsiveness. These observations have implications for the role of the PDQ-39 in clinical trials and evidence based medicine. PDQ-39 derived endpoints should be interpreted and selected cautiously, particularly regarding small but clinically important effects among people with less severe problems.
Geographical access to health care facilities is known to influence health services usage. As societies age, accessibility to health care becomes an increasingly acute public health concern. It is known that seniors tend to have lower mobility levels, and it is possible that this may negatively affect their ability to reach facilities and services. Therefore, it becomes important to examine the mobility situation of seniors vis-a-vis the spatial distribution of health care facilities, to identify areas where accessibility is low and interventions may be required.
Accessibility is implemented using a cumulative opportunities measure. Instead of assuming a fixed bandwidth (i.e. a distance threshold) for measuring accessibility, in this paper the bandwidth is defined using model-based estimates of average trip length. Average trip length is an all-purpose indicator of individual mobility and geographical reach. Adoption of a spatial modelling approach allows us to tailor these estimates of travel behaviour to specific locations and person profiles. Replacing a fixed bandwidth with these estimates permits us to calculate customized location- and person-based accessibility measures that allow inter-personal as well as geographical comparisons.
The case study is Montreal Island. Geo-coded travel behaviour data, specifically average trip length, and relevant traveller's attributes are obtained from the Montreal Household Travel Survey. These data are complemented with information from the Census. Health care facilities, also geo-coded, are extracted from a comprehensive business point database. Health care facilities are selected based on Standard Industrial Classification codes 8011-21 (Medical Doctors and Dentists).
Model-based estimates of average trip length show that travel behaviour varies widely across space. With the exception of seniors in the downtown area, older residents of Montreal Island tend to be significantly less mobile than people of other age cohorts. The combination of average trip length estimates with the spatial distribution of health care facilities indicates that despite being more mobile, suburban residents tend to have lower levels of accessibility compared to central city residents. The effect is more marked for seniors. Furthermore, the results indicate that accessibility calculated using a fixed bandwidth would produce patterns of exposure to health care facilities that would be difficult to achieve for suburban seniors given actual mobility patterns.
The analysis shows large disparities in accessibility between seniors and non-seniors, between urban and suburban seniors, and between vehicle owning and non-owning seniors. This research was concerned with potential accessibility levels. Follow up research could consider the results reported here to select case studies of actual access and usage of health care facilities, and related health outcomes.
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This study aimed to (1) explore whether quality of life (QOL) is more associated with satisfaction with social participation (SP) than with level of accomplishment in SP and (2) examine respective correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP.
A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 155 older adults (mean age=73.7; 60% women) having various levels of activity limitations. Accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP (dependent variables) were estimated with the social roles items of the assessment of life habits. Potential correlates were human functioning components.
Correlations between QOL and accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP did not differ (P=0.71). However, best correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP were different. Higher accomplishment level of SP was best explained by younger age, activity level perceived as stable, no recent stressing event, better well-being, higher activity level, and fewer obstacles in "Physical environment and accessibility" (R2=0.79). Greater satisfaction with SP was best explained by activity level perceived as stable, better self-perceived health, better well-being, higher activity level, and more facilitators in "Social support and attitudes" (R2=0.51).
With some exceptions, these best correlates may be positively modified and thus warrant special attention in rehabilitation interventions.
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To present the Danish Occupational Social Class (DOSC) measurement as a measure of socioeconomic position (SEP) applicable in a late midlife population, and to analyze associations of this measure with three aging-related outcomes in midlife, adjusting for education.
Systematic coding procedures of the DOSC measurement were applied to 7,084 participants from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) survey. We examined the association of this measure of SEP with chronic conditions, self-rated health, and mobility in logistic regression analyses, adjusting for school education in the final analysis.
The measure of SEP showed a strong social gradient along the social classes in terms of prevalence of chronic conditions, poor self-rated health, and mobility limitations. Adjusting for school education attenuated the association only to a minor degree.
The DOSC measure was associated with aging-related outcomes in a midlife Danish population, and is, thus, well suited for future epidemiological research on social inequalities in health and aging.
To investigate user satisfaction with characteristics of powered scooters (scooters), frequency of use, and factors predicting daily scooter use.
Adult scooter users (n?=?59) in Denmark and Norway, mean age 74.5 (standard deviation 12.3) years.
Structured face-to-face interviews. The NOMO 1.0, the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive devices (QUEST 2.0), and a study specific instrument were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were applied, and regression analyzes were used to investigate predictors for daily scooter use. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) served as a framework for classifying variables and guiding the investigation.
Satisfaction with the scooter characteristics was high with most participants being very satisfied or quite satisfied (66.1-91.5%). Most scooters were used daily (36.2%) or several times a week (50.0%). User satisfaction with safety of the scooter [odds ratio (OR)?=?11.76, confidence interval (CI)?=?1.70-81.28] and reduced balance (OR?=?5.63, CI?=?0.90-35.39) increased the likelihood of daily use, while reduced function in back and/or legs (OR?=?.04, CI?=?0.00-0.75), tiredness (OR?=?.06, CI?=?0.01-0.51), and increased age (OR?=?.93, CI?=?0.87-1.00) reduced the likelihood of daily use. 52.8% of the variance was explained by these variables.
User satisfaction was high, and most scooters were used frequently. User satisfaction with safety, specific functional limitations and age were predictors for daily scooter use. Implications for Rehabilitation Scooters seem to be a beneficial intervention for people with mobility impairment: user satisfaction and frequency of use are high. Users' subjective feeling of safety should be secured in the service delivery process in order to support safe and frequent scooter use. Training of scooter skills should be considered in the service delivery process.
To compare directly the prevalence and risk factors for arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitations (AAL) between the US and Canada, and to estimate the population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) for obesity and leisure time physical inactivity.
We conducted analyses of the 2002-2003 Joint Canada/US Health Survey, which asked about health professional-diagnosed arthritis, and arthritis reported as a cause of disability in specified activities of daily living. We used log-Poisson regression to obtain prevalence ratios for arthritis and AAL, adjusting for education, income, having a regular doctor, physical inactivity, and obesity. PAR% for obesity and physical inactivity were calculated.
The estimated crude prevalence of arthritis and AAL were 18.7% and 9.3%, respectively, in the US and 16.9% and 7.4%, respectively, in Canada. Being American was a significant bivariate predictor of arthritis and AAL, but not after adjustment for obesity and physical inactivity. PAR% for obesity were 14% and 20% for arthritis and AAL, respectively, for Americans and 13% and 17%, respectively, for Canadians, and for physical inactivity were 15% and 21%, respectively, for Americans and 4% and 5%, respectively, for Canadians, with estimates being higher among women.
The higher prevalence of arthritis and AAL in the US may be accounted for by the higher prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity, particularly in women. The high PAR% related to obesity in both countries, and physical inactivity in the US, point to the importance of public health initiatives to reduce obesity and increase physical activity to reduce the prevalence of arthritis and AAL.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To enable self-reporting of functional outcome in quality registers, the corresponding questions have to be easy to interpret. In scientific research, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) is a standard assessment method. Such methods, with an outsider observer, are not feasible to use in quality registers. For several aspects, eg, comparisons between outcome in clinical studies and observational studies, we determined to see whether the functional outcome, as assessed in a quality register, can be transformed into mRS grades. METHODS: The agreement between self-reported functional outcome (including dependency, living situation, mobility, dressing and toileting) and mRS were analyzed using 555 stroke patients registered in Riks-Stroke, the Swedish quality register for acute stroke, during a 5-month period in 4 hospitals. The self-reported outcome and the mRS grades were concurrently assessed by a telephone interview performed by an experienced nurse 3 months after stroke. RESULTS: A translation using 5 of the questions from Riks-Stroke classified 76% of the patients to the correct mRS grade. The correlation between Riks-Stroke and mRS was 0.821 and Cohen's kappa (weighted) was 0.853. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that self-reported functional outcome can be transformed into mRS grades with a high precision, making the translation useful for future comparative purposes in stroke outcome studies.
Research has demonstrated a bidirectional relationship between physical function and depression, but studies on their association in migrant populations are scarce. We examined the association between mental health symptoms and mobility limitation in Russian, Somali and Kurdish migrants in Finland.
We used data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu). The participants comprised 1357 persons of Russian, Somali or Kurdish origin aged 18-64 years. Mobility limitation included self-reported difficulties in walking 500?m or stair climbing. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and symptoms of somatization using the somatization subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R). A comparison group of the general Finnish population was selected from the Health 2011 study.
Anxiety symptoms were positively associated with mobility limitation in women (Russians odds ratio [OR] 2.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-6.94, Somalis OR 6.41; 95% CI 2.02-20.29 and Kurds OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.41-5.04), after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, obesity and chronic diseases. Also somatization increased the odds for mobility limitation in women (Russians OR 4.29; 95% CI 1.76-10.44, Somalis OR 18.83; 95% CI 6.15-57.61 and Kurds OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.91-6.52). Depressive symptoms were associated with mobility limitation in Russian and Kurdish women (Russians OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.27-7.19 and Kurds OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.39-4.99). Anxiety symptoms and somatization were associated with mobility limitation in Kurdish men when adjusted for socio-demographic factors, but not after adjusting for obesity and chronic diseases. Finnish women had similar associations as the migrant women, but Finnish men and Kurdish men showed varying associations.
Mental health symptoms are significantly associated with mobility limitation both in the studied migrant populations and in the general Finnish population. The joint nature of mental health symptoms and mobility limitation should be recognized by health professionals, also when working with migrants. This association should be addressed when developing health services and health promotion.
To explore how wheelchair-related factors, mobility, and participation are associated in a sample of long-term care residents who use wheelchairs as their primary means of mobility.
Eleven residential care facilities in the lower mainland of British Columbia, Canada.
One hundred forty-six self-responding residents and 118 proxy respondents: mean age 84 (range 60-103). Most were female (69%), and a small proportion (9%) drove a power wheelchair.
The Nursing Home Life Space Diameter Assessment was used to measure resident mobility, and the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument: Disability Component was used to measure participation frequency in daily activities.
Path analysis indicated that wheelchair-related factors were associated with participation frequency directly and indirectly through their relationship with mobility. The final model explained 46% of the variance in resident mobility and 53% of the variance in resident participation frequency. Wheelchair skills, which include the ability to transfer in and out of and propel a wheelchair, were important predictors of life-space mobility and frequency of participation, and life space mobility was a significant predictor of frequency of participation. Depression was associated with poorer wheelchair skills and mobility and less-frequent participation. Counterintuitively, perceived environmental barriers were positively associated with frequency of participation.
The findings suggest that, by addressing wheelchair-related factors, resident's mobility and participation may be improved, but the efficacy of this approach needs to be confirmed experimentally.
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