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28 records – page 1 of 3.

Biomedical surveillance: rights conflict with rights.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature236478
Source
J Occup Med. 1986 Oct;28(10):958-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1986
Author
G. Atherley
N. Johnston
M. Tennassee
Source
J Occup Med. 1986 Oct;28(10):958-65
Date
Oct-1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aviation
Biomedical research
Canada
Civil Rights - legislation & jurisprudence
Disclosure
Ethics
Government Regulation
Humans
Lead
Mandatory Programs
Mass Screening - legislation & jurisprudence
Mining
Monitoring, Physiologic
Occupational Diseases - prevention & control
Occupational Health Services - legislation & jurisprudence
Research Subjects
Risk assessment
Uranium
Abstract
Medical screening and biomedical monitoring violate individual rights. Such conflicts of right with right are acted upon synergistically by uncertainty which, in some important respects, increases rather than decreases as a result of research. Issues of rightness and wrongness, ethical issues, arise because the human beings who are subjects of medical screening and biological monitoring often have little or no option whether to be subjected to them. We identify issues of rightness and wrongness of biomedical surveillance for various purposes of occupational health and safety. We distinguish between social validity and scientific validity. We observe that principles are well established for scientific validity, but not for social validity. We support guidelines as a way forward.
PubMed ID
3772552 View in PubMed
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Calibration system for measuring the radon flux density.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271780
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2015 Jun;164(4):582-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
A. Onishchenko
M. Zhukovsky
V. Bastrikov
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2015 Jun;164(4):582-6
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adsorption
Algorithms
Calibration
Charcoal
Diffusion
Equipment Design
Mining
Radiation Exposure
Radiation Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Radon - analysis
Russia
Soil Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Uranium
Abstract
The measurement of radon flux from soil surface is the useful tool for the assessment of radon-prone areas and monitoring of radon releases from uranium mining and milling residues. The accumulation chambers with hollow headspace and chambers with activated charcoal are the most used devices for these purposes. Systematic errors of the measurements strongly depend on the geometry of the chamber and diffusion coefficient of the radon in soil. The calibration system for the attestation of devices for radon flux measurements was constructed. The calibration measurements of accumulation chambers and chambers with activated charcoal were conducted. The good agreement between the results of 2D modelling of radon flux and measurements results was observed. It was demonstrated that reliable measurements of radon flux can be obtained by chambers with activated charcoal (equivalent volume ~75 l) or by accumulation chambers with hollow headspace of ~7-10 l and volume/surface ratio (height) of >15 cm.
PubMed ID
25977351 View in PubMed
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[Clinical and morphologic characteristics of lung cancer in miners of Krivoy Rog iron-ore region and of uranium mines of Zhovti Vody.]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80159
Source
Lik Sprava. 2004 Jan-Feb;(1):84-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
Bednaryk O M
Filipchenko L L
Pan'kova A O
Kryvoshei L O
Slinchenko M Z
Source
Lik Sprava. 2004 Jan-Feb;(1):84-7
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Humans
Iron
Lung - pathology
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology - pathology
Middle Aged
Mining
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - pathology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Time Factors
Ukraine - epidemiology
Uranium
Abstract
Clinical and morphological features of cancer were observed in two groups of miners (of Krivoy Rog iron-ore and Zholty Vody uranium mines), working in hazardous labour conditions. In both of groups the disease course had typical features for lung cancer. Roentgenologic changes were observed, central cancer of left and right lung was revealed by bronchoscopy method. In all the cases lung cancer was morphologically proved and classified as squamous. Rapid progression of the disease and late medical aid appealability cause the patients consulted with their doctors only at the stage of II-III, sometimes III of the disease and it makes a distinction of lung cancer in miners of iron-ore and uranium mines. In order to prevent such a late diagnostics all the miners should be referred to the group of risk on lung cancer.
PubMed ID
17051723 View in PubMed
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Clinical measures, smoking, radon exposure, and risk of lung cancer in uranium miners.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature210925
Source
Occup Environ Med. 1996 Oct;53(10):697-702
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1996
Author
M M Finkelstein
Author Affiliation
Ontario Ministry of Labour, Toronto, Canada.
Source
Occup Environ Med. 1996 Oct;53(10):697-702
Date
Oct-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - adverse effects
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Forced expiratory volume
Humans
Incidence
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Mining
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Ontario - epidemiology
Radon - adverse effects
Regression Analysis
Silicosis - etiology
Smoking - adverse effects
Time Factors
Uranium
Abstract
Exposure to the radioactive daughters of radon is associated with increased risk of lung cancer in mining populations. An investigation of incidence of lung cancer following a clinical survey of Ontario uranium miners was undertaken to explore whether risk associated with radon is modified by factors including smoking, radiographic silicosis, clinical symptoms, the results of lung function testing, and the temporal pattern of radon exposure.
Miners were examined in 1974 by a respiratory questionnaire, tests of lung function, and chest radiography. A random selection of 733 (75%) of the original 973 participants was followed up by linkage to the Ontario Mortality and Cancer Registries.
Incidence of lung cancer was increased threefold. Risk of lung cancer among miners who had stopped smoking was half that of men who continued to smoke. There was no interaction between smoking and radon exposure. Men with lung function test results consistent with airways obstruction had an increased risk of lung cancer, even after adjustment for cigarette smoking. There was no association between radiographic silicosis and risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer was associated with exposures to radon daughters accumulated in a time window four to 14 years before diagnosis, but there was little association with exposures incurred earlier than 14 years before diagnosis. Among the men diagnosed with lung cancer, the mean and median dose rates were 2.6 working level months (WLM) a year and 1.8 WLM/year in the four to 14 year exposure window.
Risk of lung cancer associated with radon is modified by dose and time from exposure. Risk can be substantially decreased by stopping smoking.
Notes
Cites: J Occup Med. 1985 Sep;27(9):644-504045575
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 1986 Mar;15(1):134-73754239
Cites: Int J Cancer. 1990 Jan 15;45(1):26-332404878
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1990 Aug;132(2):265-742372006
Cites: Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991 Aug;144(2):307-111859052
Cites: CMAJ. 1995 Jan 1;152(1):37-437804920
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1993 Oct;50(10):920-88217852
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Aug 15;140(4):323-328059767
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Aug 15;140(4):333-98059768
Cites: BMJ. 1994 Oct 8;309(6959):901-117755693
Cites: J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993 Mar 17;85(6):422-38445662
PubMed ID
8943835 View in PubMed
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Comments on Bigu's 'Relationship of 220Rn and 222Rn Progeny Levels in Canadian Underground U Mines'.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature230540
Source
Health Phys. 1989 Jul;57(1):210
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1989
Author
J R Johnson
Source
Health Phys. 1989 Jul;57(1):210
Date
Jul-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Canada
Environmental Exposure
Humans
Mining
Radon - analysis
Uranium
Notes
Comment On: Health Phys. 1988 Sep;55(3):525-323170206
Comment On: Health Phys. 1985 Nov;49(5):996-82999039
PubMed ID
2745091 View in PubMed
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Deposition of radon daughters in humans exposed to uranium mine atmospheres.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature109990
Source
Health Phys. 1969 Jul;17(1):115-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1969

Effect of exposure of miners to aluminium powder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature228022
Source
Lancet. 1990 Nov 10;336(8724):1162-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-10-1990
Author
S L Rifat
M R Eastwood
D R McLachlan
P N Corey
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Canada.
Source
Lancet. 1990 Nov 10;336(8724):1162-5
Date
Nov-10-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aluminum - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Aluminum Oxide - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Chronic Disease
Cognition Disorders - chemically induced - epidemiology - mortality
Cohort Studies
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Follow-Up Studies
Gold
Humans
Male
Mining
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology - mortality
Ontario - epidemiology
Powders
Prevalence
Sampling Studies
Silicosis - prevention & control
Time Factors
Uranium
Abstract
'McIntyre Powder' (finely ground aluminium and aluminium oxide) was used as a prophylactic agent against silicotic lung disease between 1944 and 1979 in mines in northern Ontario. To find out whether the practice produced neurotoxic effects a morbidity prevalence study was conducted between 1988 and 1989. There were no significant differences between exposed and non-exposed miners in reported diagnoses of neurological disorder; however, exposed miners performed less well than did unexposed workers on cognitive state examinations; also, the proportion of men with scores in the impaired range was greater in the exposed than non-exposed group. Likelihood of scores in the impaired range increased with duration of exposure. The findings are consistent with putative neurotoxicity of chronic aluminium exposure.
PubMed ID
1978033 View in PubMed
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The epidemiology of primary lung cancer in uranium miners in Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature244452
Source
J Occup Med. 1981 Jun;23(6):417-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1981
Author
A. Chovil
Source
J Occup Med. 1981 Jun;23(6):417-21
Date
Jun-1981
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Mining
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Ontario
Risk
Uranium
Abstract
This paper reviews the epidemiology of lung cancer in uranium miners in northern Ontario whose cumulative exposure was relatively low and who were exposed only for a short period of time. The development of the "epidemic" is demonstrated chronologically and in terms of latency. An apparent difference between the effects of short-term and of more prolonged radiation is shown. A dose-response effect is demonstrated at all levels. Analysis of tumor type suggests that there may be a difference in dose-response between the two principal types encountered. The relationship of the geographic location of exposure to the final residence at death is reviewed.
PubMed ID
7241255 View in PubMed
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28 records – page 1 of 3.